Hiroshi Toyama

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OBJECT To assess its usefulness in demonstrating cisternal anatomy, the authors investigated magnetic resonance (MR) cisternography in which a heavily T2-weighted turbo spin-echo method was used to visualize normal anatomical fine structures and lesions in the basal cisterns in 20 healthy volunteers and 43 patients. The authors applied peripheral pulse(More)
We investigated changes in saccadic reaction time in relation to the degree of increase in activity of neck extensor muscles when neck flexion occurred, and assessed the reliability of the measurements. Saccadic reaction time was measured firstly, during neck flexion angles set at 5 degrees increments from 0 degrees (resting position) to 25 degrees, with(More)
We investigated the effect of increases in muscle afferent information from the shoulder girdle elevators on saccadic reaction time. Saccadic reaction time was measured under conditions of isometric voluntary contraction of the shoulder girdle elevators and vibratory stimulation of the trapezius. Saccadic reaction time was defined as the latency until the(More)
Postural muscle activity pattern was examined in the eyes-closed state after adequate adaptation to floor anteroposterior oscillation. Twenty-three subjects were grouped almost evenly according to dominance of anterior or posterior postural muscles in the trunk and thigh during quiet stance. In the posterior-dominant group, this dominance was maintained at(More)
Since the introduction of ventriculo-atrial and/or ventriculo-peritoneal shunting for hydrocephalic patients, controversies have developed regarding the likelihood of epileptic seizures developing as a result of the shunting itself and/or its complications. On the other hand, hydrocephalus is not commonly recognized as a cause of seizures in general,(More)
We investigated the influence of the reduction of foot-pressure sensation by cooling the sole of the foot, at 1 degree C for 30 or 40 minutes, on the perception of standing position varied in the anteroposterior direction. The subjects were 16 healthy undergraduates. Firstly, for 4 of the subjects, cooling the sole of the foot decreased sensory information(More)
We investigated changes in activation timing and magnitude of the postural muscles according to initial standing positions. The subjects were divided into three groups depending on the position of the center of foot pressure (CFP) during quiet standing, namely backward, middle, and forward. Subjects maintained standing postures at various CFP positions in(More)
The effects of low-intensity muscle training with heel-raises on dynamic balance associated with bilateral arm flexion were investigated in postmenopausal elderly women. Twenty-six elderly women were evenly grouped into training and control groups. Training group subjects performed 100 heel raises per day for 2 months. The training was aimed at hypertrophy(More)
The soleus, one of the triceps surae muscles, greatly contributes to standing and walking. Strength training focused on the soleus could be important to prevent age-related deterioration in these functions. We therefore investigated the effects of regular heel-raise training focused on the soleus for the elderly. Forty-nine healthy women aged 60 to 79 years(More)
We compared the timed latencies of saccadic eye movement during isometric contraction of the bilateral and unilateral shoulder girdle elevators in a sitting posture. Muscle contraction force was increased in 10% increments from 0% to 60% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of each side. Saccadic latency was measured as the latency to the beginning of(More)