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All snake species exhibit genetic sex determination with the ZZ/ZW type of sex chromosomes. To investigate the origin and evolution of snake sex chromosomes, we constructed, by FISH, a cytogenetic map of the Japanese four-striped rat snake (Elaphe quadrivirgata) with 109 cDNA clones. Eleven of the 109 clones were localized to the Z chromosome. All human and(More)
During development segmentation is a process that generates a spatial periodic pattern. Peak splitting of waves of gene expression is a mathematically predicted, simple strategy accounting for this type of process, but it has not been well characterized biologically. Here we show temporally repeated splitting of gene expression into stripes that is(More)
Comparative genome analysis of non-avian reptiles and amphibians provides important clues about the process of genome evolution in tetrapods. However, there is still only limited information available on the genome structures of these organisms. Consequently, the protokaryotypes of amniotes and tetrapods and the evolutionary processes of microchromosomes in(More)
Freshwater planarians have a simple and evolutionarily primitive brain structure. Here, we identified the Djsnap-25 gene encoding a homolog of the evolutionarily conserved synaptic protein SNAP-25 from the planarian Dugesia japonica and assessed its role in brain function. Djsnap-25 was expressed widely in the nervous system. To investigate the specific(More)
BACKGROUND In addition to erythrocytes, embryonic blood contains other differentiated cell lineages and potential progenitor or stem cells homed to changing niches as the embryo develops. Using chicken as a model system, we have isolated an enriched pool of circulating non red blood cells (nRBCs) from E4 and E6 embryos; a transition period when definitive(More)
Since first described, acoels were considered members of the flatworms (Platyhelminthes). However, no clear synapomorphies among the three large flatworm taxa -- the Catenulida, the Acoelomorpha and the Rhabditophora -- have been characterized to date. Molecular phylogenies, on the other hand, commonly positioned acoels separate from other flatworms.(More)
PURPOSE The adult newt can regenerate lens from pigmented epithelial cells (PECs) of the dorsal iris via dedifferentiation. The purpose of this research is to obtain sequence resources for a newt lens regeneration study and to obtain insights of dedifferentiation at the molecular level. METHODS mRNA was purified from iris during dedifferentiation and its(More)
Planarians are considered to be among the extant animals close to one of the earliest groups of organisms that acquired a central nervous system (CNS) during evolution. Planarians have a bilobed brain with nine lateral branches from which a variety of external signals are projected into different portions of the main lobes. Various interneurons process(More)
Extant sauropsids (reptiles and birds) are divided into two major lineages, the lineage of Testudines (turtles) and Archosauria (crocodilians and birds) and the lineage of Lepidosauria (tuatara, lizards, worm lizards and snakes). Karyotypes of these sauropsidan groups generally consist of macrochromosomes and microchromosomes. In chicken, microchromosomes(More)
We develop an OWL ontology: OGI (Ontology for Genetic Interval) for the formalization of the genomic elements by defining them as a Genetic Interval. Based on OGI's definition of Genetic Interval Relations, which derived from the Allen interval calculus, we attempt to represent the relationships among contigs and sequence data from next generation(More)
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