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Observations of rapid shifts in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants between generations prompted the creation of the bottleneck theory. A prevalent hypothesis is that a massive reduction in mtDNA content during early oogenesis leads to the bottleneck. To test this, we estimated the mtDNA copy number in single germline cells and in single somatic cells of(More)
Accumulating evidence suggests that many brain diseases are associated with defects in neuronal migration, suggesting that this step of neurogenesis is critical for brain organization. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal migration remain largely unknown. Here, we identified the zinc-finger transcriptional repressor RP58 as a key regulator(More)
The transmission profiles of sperm mtDNA introduced into fertilized eggs were examined in detail in F1 hybrids of mouse interspecific crosses by addressing three aspects. The first is whether the leaked paternal mtDNA in fertilized eggs produced by interspecific crosses was distributed stably to all tissues after the eggs' development to adults. The second(More)
RATIONALE The extent, timing, and significance of mitochondrial injury and recovery in bacterial sepsis are poorly characterized, although oxidative and nitrosative mitochondrial damage have been implicated in the development of organ failure. OBJECTIVES To define the relationships between mitochondrial biogenesis, oxidative metabolism, and recovery from(More)
A conundrum of innate antiviral immunity is how nucleic acid-sensing Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and RIG-I/MDA5 receptors cooperate during virus infection. The conventional wisdom has been that the activation of these receptor pathways evokes type I IFN (IFN) responses. Here, we provide evidence for a critical role of a Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)-dependent(More)
To determine zygosity in transgenic (Tg) mice, a new technology, real-time quantitative PCR, has recently been introduced in transgenic research to overcome several drawbacks (time-consuming, specialized techniques and/or ambiguity in the results) of previously established methods, for example, Southern blot hybridization, dot blot hybridization,(More)
Three nominal species are known in East Asian balitorid loaches of the genus Lefua, i.e. L. echigonia, L. nikkonis, and L. costata. Lefua echigonia, with large morphological variations was recently separated into two groups, L. echigonia including the holotype and L. sp., based on morphological and ecological traits. We performed protein and DNA analyses to(More)
In mammals, observations of rapid shifts in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants between generations have led to the creation of the bottleneck theory for the transmission of mtDNA. The bottleneck could be attributed to a marked decline of mtDNA content in germ cells giving rise to the next generation, to a small effective number of mtDNA segregation units(More)
PINK1 and Parkin were first identified as the causal genes responsible for familial forms of early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD), a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder. PINK1 encodes a mitochondrial serine/threonine protein kinase, whereas Parkin encodes an ubiquitin-protein ligase. PINK1 and Parkin cooperate to maintain mitochondrial integrity; however,(More)
The adaptive mechanisms that protect brain metabolism during and after hypoxia, for instance, during hypoxic preconditioning, are coordinated in part by nitric oxide (NO). We tested the hypothesis that acute transient hypoxia stimulates NO synthase (NOS)-activated mechanisms of mitochondrial biogenesis in the hypoxia-sensitive subcortex of wild-type (Wt)(More)