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Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,(1) and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.(2,3) There are many useful and(More)
Two complementary DNAs for the organic anion transporter subtypes oatp2 and oatp3, which transport thyroid hormones as well as taurocholate, were isolated from a rat retina cDNA library. The sequence of oatp2 is identical to that recently reported (Noé, B., Hagenbuch, B., Stieger, B., and Meier, P. J. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 94, 10346-10350),(More)
The heterogeneous gene expression for four subtypes of alpha 1 (A,B,C,D)- and beta (beta 1,beta 2,beta 3,beta 4)-subunits of voltage-dependent calcium channels was demonstrated in developing and adult rat brain by in situ hybridization histochemistry. In the adult rat brain the gene expression for A- and B-subtypes was predominant in the cerebellar cortex(More)
The rabbit polyclonal antibody against rat organic anion transporting polypeptide 2 (oatp2) was raised and immunoaffinity-purified. Western blot analysis for oatp2 detected two bands ( 74 and 76 kDa) in rat brain and a single band (76 kDa) in the liver. By immunohistochemical analysis, the oatp2 immunoreactivity was specifically high at the basolateral(More)
The proto-oncogene ras plays a critical role in cell proliferation and differentiation. However, ras genes are abundantly expressed in the adult CNS, although neuronal cells normally do not proliferate. Recently, several lines of evidence implicated the involvement of Ras signaling pathway in synaptic plasticity. To explore the role of the Ras proteins in(More)
The nucleotide sequence of a cDNA encoding Asp-hemolysin from Aspergillus fumigatus was clarified. The deduced amino acid sequence was shown to contain a set of negatively charged domains similar to portions of the cysteine-rich sequence in the ligand-binding domain of LDL-receptor. A potential signal sequence was also identified in the N-terminal domain of(More)
Further phytochemical analysis aimed at the steroidal glycoside constituents of the leaves of Cestrum nocturnum has resulted in the isolation of eight new steroidal glycosides (1-8), which were classified into a spirostanol saponin (1), a furostanol saponin (2), a pseudo-furostanol saponin (3), two pregnane glycosides (4, 5), two cholestane glycosides (6,(More)
Inhibitory neurons play important roles in a number of brain functions. They are composed of GABAergic neurons and glycinergic neurons, and vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) is specifically expressed in these neurons. Since the inhibitory neurons are scattered around in the CNS, it is difficult to identify these cells in living brain preparations. The(More)
Although there is an increasing amount of information pertaining to the systemic effects of malocclusion, its mechanisms still remain unclear in many ways. This study was conducted to find out the systemic effects of the occlusal destruction in guinea pigs. The animals showed an abnormality in posture and a reversal of the T wave in electrocardiogram (ECG)(More)
Ferulic acid and eugenol were examined for their superoxide (O2-), hydroxyl radical (.OH) and nitric oxide (NO)-scavenging ability, using ESR spectroscopy with spin trap agents DMPO and carboxy-PTIO/NOC-7. Ferulic acid more efficiently scavenged .OH and NO than eugenol. The O2- scavenging activity of ferulic acid was comparable with that of eugenol. Ferulic(More)