Hiroshi Onimaru

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Glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons mediate much of the excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission, respectively, in the vertebrate nervous system. The process by which developing neurons select between these two cell fates is poorly understood. Here we show that the homeobox genes Tlx3 and Tlx1 determine excitatory over inhibitory cell fates in the mouse(More)
We visualized respiratory neuron activity covering the entire ventral medulla using optical recordings in a newborn rat brainstem-spinal cord preparation stained with voltage-sensitive dye. We measured optical signals from several seconds before to several seconds after the inspiratory phase using the inspiratory motor nerve discharge as the trigger signal;(More)
The in vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparation of newborn rats is an established model for the analysis of respiratory network functions. Respiratory activity is generated by interneurons, bilaterally distributed in the ventrolateral medulla. In particular non-NMDA type glutamate receptors constitute excitatory synaptic connectivity between respiratory(More)
We report that after spontaneous breathing movements are stopped by administration of opioids (opioid-induced apnoea) in neonatal rats, abdominal muscles continue to contract at a rate similar to that observed during periods of ventilation. Correspondingly, in vitro bath application of a mu opioid receptor agonist suppresses the activity of the fourth(More)
In brainstem-spinal cord preparations isolated from newborn rats, we examined functions of the ventral medulla in respiratory rhythm generation, and located respiratory neurons in that region. Removal of the dorsal half of the medulla caused only modest reduction of the rate of inspiratory bursts from the cervical (C4 or C5) ventral root and moderate(More)
Phox2b protein is a specific marker for neurons in the parafacial region of the ventral medulla, which are proposed to play a role in central chemoreception and postnatal survival. Mutations of PHOX2B cause congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. However, there have been no reports concerning electrophysiological characteristics of these(More)
There are at least two respiration-related rhythm generators in the medulla: the pre-Bötzinger complex, which produces inspiratory (Insp) neuron bursts, and the parafacial respiratory group (pFRG), which produces predominantly preinspiratory (Pre-I) neuron bursts. The pFRG Pre-I neuron activity has not been correlated with motor neuron activity in slice or(More)
Na+, K+-ATPase 2 subunit gene (Atp1a2) knock-out homozygous mice (Atp1a2-/-) died immediately after birth resulting from lack of breathing. The respiratory-related neuron activity in Atp1a2-/- was investigated using a brainstem-spinal cord en bloc preparation. The respiratory motoneuron activity recorded from the fourth cervical ventral root (C4) was(More)
The respiratory network in the ventrolateral medulla of the brainstem-spinal cord preparation from newborn rat involves pre-inspiratory (Pre-I) neurons, three types of inspiratory (Insp I, II, III) neurons and two types of expiratory (Exp-i, Exp-p-i) neurons as major subtypes, which were classified according to patterns of postsynaptic potentials. The(More)
BACKGROUND Underlying mechanisms behind opioid-induced respiratory depression are not fully understood. The authors investigated changes in burst rate, intraburst firing frequency, membrane properties, as well as presynaptic and postsynaptic events of respiratory neurons in the isolated brainstem after administration of opioid receptor agonists. METHODS(More)