Hiroshi Ohshima

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Although the proof that N-nitroso compounds (NOC), a versatile class of carcinogens in animals, are also carcinogenic in man is lacking, humans are exposed through ingestion or inhalation to preformed NOC in the environment and through the endogenous nitrosation of amino precursors in the body. Activated macrophages can synthesize nitrate, nitrite and(More)
Muscle atrophy and bone loss pose substantial problems for long-term space flight and in clinical immobilization. We therefore tested the efficacy of flywheel resistive exercise and pamidronate to counteract such losses. Twenty five young healthy males underwent strict bed rest with -6 degrees head-down tilt for 90 days. Subjects were randomized into an(More)
In order to evaluate exposure of betel quid chewers to N-nitroso compounds, saliva and urine samples were collected from chewers of betel quid with or without tobacco, from tobacco chewers, from cigarette smokers and from people with no such habit, and were analysed for the presence of N-nitrosamines by gas chromatography coupled with Thermal Energy(More)
Infection by bacteria, parasites or viruses and tissue inflammation such as gastritis, hepatitis and colitis are recognized risk factors for human cancers at various sites. Nitric oxide (NO) and other oxygen radicals produced in infected and inflamed tissues could contribute to the process of carcinogenesis by different mechanisms, which are discussed on(More)
Cigarette smoking is a cause of lung cancer and other respiratory diseases. Oxidants either present in cigarette smoke and/or formed in the lung of smokers may trigger oxidative and nitrative damage to DNA and cellular components, contributing to carcinogenesis. We have used immunodot and Western blot analyses to measure nitrated (nitrotyrosine-containing)(More)
Cholangiocarcinoma is a relatively rare cancer; worldwide it accounts for an estimated 15% of liver cancers. In most areas, the etiology is rather obscure, and identified risk factors such as hepatolithiasis, inflammatory bowel disease, and exposure to Thorotrast can account for only a small proportion of cases. In certain areas of southeast and eastern(More)
Immunoelectron microscopy was performed to localize immunoreactivity for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in guinea pig atria. Many round intracardiac ganglia, close to the openings of the pulmonary veins, contained NOS-immunoreactive neurons. A small number of neurons were immunoreactive, but most of the non-immunoreactive neurons were surrounded by(More)
Endogenous formation of N-nitrosoproline (NPRO) was demonstrated by monitoring its excretion in the urine of a male volunteer who had ingested vegetable juice, as a source of nitrate, and proline. The resulting NPRO was analyzed after derivatization by combined gas-liquid chromatography thermal energy analysis. The amount of total NPRO excreted in the urine(More)
Chronic inflammation induced by biological, chemical, and physical factors has been associated with increased risk of human cancer at various sites. Inflammation activates a variety of inflammatory cells, which induce and activate several oxidant-generating enzymes such as NADPH oxidase, inducible nitric oxide synthase, myeloperoxidase, and eosinophil(More)
Carbon dioxide has been reported to react with peroxynitrite (ONOO-), a strong oxidant and nitrating agent, to form an ONO2CO2- adduct, altering the reactivity characteristic of peroxynitrite. We found that bicarbonate (0-10 mM) caused a dose-dependent increase of up to 6-fold in the formation of 8-nitroguanine in calf-thymus DNA incubated with 0.1 mM(More)