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This article reviews bioengineered strategies for spinal cord repair using tissue engineered scaffolds and drug delivery systems. The pathophysiology of spinal cord injury (SCI) is multifactorial and multiphasic, and therefore, it is likely that effective treatments will require combinations of strategies such as neuroprotection to counteract secondary(More)
Axonal dieback is a process in which axons in spinal tracts retract away from the initial site of injury. The purpose of this project is to study the dynamics of dieback in corticospinal tract (CST) axons after various time intervals post-injury, to find the optimal spatial-temporal window for regenerative treatment. Rats received transection injuries at(More)
Neural stem/progenitor cells capable of generating new neurons and glia, reside in specific areas of the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS), including the ependymal region of the spinal cord and the subventricular zone (SVZ), hippocampus, and dentate gyrus of the brain. Much is known about the neurogenic regions in the CNS, and their response to(More)
The authors report four cases of traumatic neuroma in the cervical nerve root in patients with no history of trauma. In one case the patient presented with intractable pain in the left upper extremity and motor paresis of the left shoulder, and in another case the patient suffered neuropathic pain in the left forearm. In both cases, magnetic resonance (MR)(More)
The present study reports the beneficial effects of an anti-mouse interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor antibody (MR16-1) on neuropathic pain in mice with spinal cord injury (SCI). Following laminectomy, contusion SCI models were produced using an Infinite Horizon (IH)-impactor. MR16-1 was continuously injected for 14 days using Alzet osmotic pumps. A mouse IL-6(More)
Specific neuronal subpopulations within specific brain areas are responsible for learning and memory. A fear memory engages a subset of lateral amygdala neurons, but whether multiple contextual fear memories engage the same or different subsets of lateral amygdala neurons remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate the representation of multiple contextual fear(More)
The aim of this study was to demonstrate acute to subacute molecular episodes in the dorsal horn following root avulsion using immunohistochemical methods with the markers for synapses, astrocytes and such stress-responsive molecules as heat shock proteins (Hsps) and p38 MAP kinase (p38). Among them, Hsp27 was accumulated selectively in the injured(More)
Adenylate cyclase activity was demonstrated in the cilia, dendritic knob and axon of rat olfactory cells by using a strontium-based cytochemical method. The activity in the cilia and the dendritic knob was enhanced by non-hydrolyzable GTP (guanosine triphosphate) analogues and forskolin, and inhibited by Ca2+, all in agreement with biochemical reports of(More)
Although ethanol has been shown to impair acquisition of memory, its effect on consolidated memories is not clear. Recent reports revealed that memory retrieval converted consolidated memory into a labile state and initiated the reconsolidation process. In the present study, we have demonstrated the effect of ethanol on reactivated fear memory. We used(More)
We measured cerebral glucose utilization and fluorodopa metabolism in the brain of patients with corticobasal degeneration using position emission tomography. The clinical pictures are distinctive, comprising features referable to both cerebral cortical and basal ganglionic dysfunctions. Brain images of glucose metabolism can demonstrate specific(More)