Hiroshi Nomura

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Axonal dieback is a process in which axons in spinal tracts retract away from the initial site of injury. The purpose of this project is to study the dynamics of dieback in corticospinal tract (CST) axons after various time intervals post-injury, to find the optimal spatial-temporal window for regenerative treatment. Rats received transection injuries at(More)
This article reviews bioengineered strategies for spinal cord repair using tissue engineered scaffolds and drug delivery systems. The pathophysiology of spinal cord injury (SCI) is multifactorial and multiphasic, and therefore, it is likely that effective treatments will require combinations of strategies such as neuroprotection to counteract secondary(More)
Although ethanol has been shown to impair acquisition of memory, its effect on consolidated memories is not clear. Recent reports revealed that memory retrieval converted consolidated memory into a labile state and initiated the reconsolidation process. In the present study, we have demonstrated the effect of ethanol on reactivated fear memory. We used(More)
Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase kinase family member, which induces apoptosis in various cells through JNK and p38 MAP kinase cascades. In addition to apoptosis signaling, a number of recent in vitro studies have suggested that ASK1 may play roles in neural function. However, the behavioral(More)
Language is fairly well preserved in most patients with mild Alzheimer's disease, but writing ability seems to be impaired even in the early stages of the disease. To investigate the neural bases of writing impairments in Alzheimer's disease (AD), we examined the correlation between writing ability and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 52 Japanese(More)
A feature of fear memory is its persistence, which could be a factor for affective disorders. Memory retrieval destabilizes consolidated memories, and then rapid molecular cascades contribute to early stabilization of reactivated memories. However, persistence of reactivated memories has been poorly understood. Here, we discover that late Arc (also known as(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS We investigated writing abilities in patients with the amnestic type of mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). To examine the earliest changes in writing function, we used writing tests for both words and sentences with different types of Japanese characters (Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji). METHODS A total of(More)
Prevention of relapses is a major challenge in treating anxiety disorders. Fear reinstatement can cause relapse in spite of successful fear reduction through extinction-based exposure therapy. By utilising a contextual fear-conditioning task in mice, we found that reinstatement was accompanied by decreased c-Fos expression in the infralimbic cortex (IL)(More)
Sensory stimuli not only activate specific populations of cortical neurons but can also silence other populations. However, it remains unclear whether neuronal silencing per se leads to memory formation and behavioral expression. Here we show that mice can report optogenetic inactivation of auditory neuron ensembles by exhibiting fear responses or seeking a(More)
Synaptic plasticity is a cellular mechanism putatively underlying learning and memory. However, it is unclear whether learning induces synaptic modification globally or only in a subset of neurons in associated brain regions. In this study, we genetically identified neurons activated during contextual fear learning and separately recorded synaptic efficacy(More)