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Allopregnanolone (ALLO), is a brain endogenous neurosteroid that binds with high affinity to gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors and positively modulates the action of GABA at these receptors. Unlike ALLO, 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone (5alpha-DHP) binds with high affinity to intracellular progesterone receptors that regulate DNA transcription.(More)
A total of 33 neurons with cutaneous receptive fields were recorded from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACCx) and successfully injected with neurobiotin. All neurons were in area 24 of the ACCx. Neurons from the ACCx had large receptive fields (RFs), usually bilateral, and some had RFs covering the whole body surface. Most of the neurons were in the deep(More)
Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase kinase family member, which induces apoptosis in various cells through JNK and p38 MAP kinase cascades. In addition to apoptosis signaling, a number of recent in vitro studies have suggested that ASK1 may play roles in neural function. However, the behavioral(More)
The authors report four cases of traumatic neuroma in the cervical nerve root in patients with no history of trauma. In one case the patient presented with intractable pain in the left upper extremity and motor paresis of the left shoulder, and in another case the patient suffered neuropathic pain in the left forearm. In both cases, magnetic resonance (MR)(More)
Specific neuronal subpopulations within specific brain areas are responsible for learning and memory. A fear memory engages a subset of lateral amygdala neurons, but whether multiple contextual fear memories engage the same or different subsets of lateral amygdala neurons remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate the representation of multiple contextual fear(More)
The aim of this study was to demonstrate acute to subacute molecular episodes in the dorsal horn following root avulsion using immunohistochemical methods with the markers for synapses, astrocytes and such stress-responsive molecules as heat shock proteins (Hsps) and p38 MAP kinase (p38). Among them, Hsp27 was accumulated selectively in the injured(More)
Although ethanol has been shown to impair acquisition of memory, its effect on consolidated memories is not clear. Recent reports revealed that memory retrieval converted consolidated memory into a labile state and initiated the reconsolidation process. In the present study, we have demonstrated the effect of ethanol on reactivated fear memory. We used(More)
Synaptic plasticity is a cellular mechanism putatively underlying learning and memory. However, it is unclear whether learning induces synaptic modification globally or only in a subset of neurons in associated brain regions. In this study, we genetically identified neurons activated during contextual fear learning and separately recorded synaptic efficacy(More)
In rats and mice, the hippocampus lies beneath higher than 1 mm of the neocortex. This anatomical feature makes it difficult to experimentally access the hippocampus from the surface of the brain in vivo. This problem may be solved by surgical removal of the cortical tissue above the hippocampus; however, it has not been examined whether this 'hippocampal(More)
The activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated gene (Arc, also known as Arg3.1) is an effector immediate-early gene rapidly induced by strong neural activity. Although a number of studies have revealed significant functions of Arc and Arc has come into widespread use as a neural activity marker in behavioral studies, the mechanisms regulating Arc(More)