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Allopregnanolone (ALLO), is a brain endogenous neurosteroid that binds with high affinity to gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors and positively modulates the action of GABA at these receptors. Unlike ALLO, 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone (5alpha-DHP) binds with high affinity to intracellular progesterone receptors that regulate DNA transcription.(More)
A total of 33 neurons with cutaneous receptive fields were recorded from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACCx) and successfully injected with neurobiotin. All neurons were in area 24 of the ACCx. Neurons from the ACCx had large receptive fields (RFs), usually bilateral, and some had RFs covering the whole body surface. Most of the neurons were in the deep(More)
This article reviews bioengineered strategies for spinal cord repair using tissue engineered scaffolds and drug delivery systems. The pathophysiology of spinal cord injury (SCI) is multifactorial and multiphasic, and therefore, it is likely that effective treatments will require combinations of strategies such as neuroprotection to counteract secondary(More)
OBJECTIVE Previously, we reported that synthetic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) (PHEMA-MMA) channels promoted regeneration of a small number of axons from brainstem motor nuclei yet provided limited functional recovery after complete spinal cord transection at T8 in rats. However, we found that these modulus channels partially(More)
OBJECTIVE We describe a new strategy to promote axonal regeneration after subacute or chronic spinal cord injury consisting of intramedullary implantation of chitosan guidance channels containing peripheral nerve (PN) grafts. METHODS Chitosan channels filled with PN grafts harvested from green fluorescent protein rats were implanted in the cavity 1 week(More)
Axonal dieback is a process in which axons in spinal tracts retract away from the initial site of injury. The purpose of this project is to study the dynamics of dieback in corticospinal tract (CST) axons after various time intervals post-injury, to find the optimal spatial-temporal window for regenerative treatment. Rats received transection injuries at(More)
The aim of this study was to understand the survival and differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) cultured on chitosan matrices in vivo in a complete transection model of spinal cord injury. NSPCs were isolated from the subependyma of lateral ventricles of adult GFP transgenic rat forebrains. The GFP-positive neurospheres were seeded onto the(More)
Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase kinase family member, which induces apoptosis in various cells through JNK and p38 MAP kinase cascades. In addition to apoptosis signaling, a number of recent in vitro studies have suggested that ASK1 may play roles in neural function. However, the behavioral(More)
The present study reports the beneficial effects of an anti-mouse interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor antibody (MR16-1) on neuropathic pain in mice with spinal cord injury (SCI). Following laminectomy, contusion SCI models were produced using an Infinite Horizon (IH)-impactor. MR16-1 was continuously injected for 14 days using Alzet osmotic pumps. A mouse IL-6(More)
Specific neuronal subpopulations within specific brain areas are responsible for learning and memory. A fear memory engages a subset of lateral amygdala neurons, but whether multiple contextual fear memories engage the same or different subsets of lateral amygdala neurons remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate the representation of multiple contextual fear(More)