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OBJECTIVES Zika virus has spread internationally through countries in the South Pacific and Americas. The present study aimed to estimate the basic reproduction number, R0, of Zika virus infection as a measurement of the transmission potential, reanalyzing past epidemic data from the South Pacific. METHODS Incidence data from two epidemics, one on Yap(More)
The complex and unprecedented Ebola epidemic ongoing in West Africa has highlighted the need to review the epidemiological characteristics of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) as well as our current understanding of the transmission dynamics and the effect of control interventions against Ebola transmission. Here we review key epidemiological data from past Ebola(More)
The effective reproduction number, R t , of Ebola virus disease was estimated using country-specific data reported from Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone to the World Health Organization from March to August, 2014. R t for the three countries lies consistently above 1.0 since June 2014. Country-specific R t for Liberia and Sierra Leone have lied between 1.0(More)
On 16 May 2009, Japan confirmed its first three cases of new influenza A(H1N1) virus infection without a history of overseas travel, and by 1 June, 361 cases, owing to indigenous secondary transmission, have been confirmed. Of these, 287 cases (79.5%) were teenagers (i.e. between 10 and 19 years of age). The reproduction number is estimated at 2.3 (95%(More)
BACKGROUND The natural history of wild-type dengue virus (DENV) infections of humans, including incubation and infectious periods, requires further study. METHODS Two experimental studies in the Philippines of DENV-4 (1924-1925) and DENV-1 (1929-1930) were reexamined. The intrinsic incubation periods were fitted to log-normal distribution using the(More)
BACKGROUND Entry screening tends to start with a search for febrile international passengers, and infrared thermoscanners have been employed for fever screening in Japan. We aimed to retrospectively assess the feasibility of detecting influenza cases based on fever screening as a sole measure. METHODS Two datasets were collected at Narita International(More)
The basic reproduction number, R(0), a summary measure of the transmission potential of an infectious disease, is estimated from early epidemic growth rate, but a likelihood-based method for the estimation has yet to be developed. The present study corrects the concept of the actual reproduction number, offering a simple framework for estimating R(0)(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a zoonosis for which pigs play a role as a reservoir. In Japan, the infection has been enzootic in swine. Clarifying the detailed mechanisms of transmission within farms is required in order to facilitate an understanding of the age-specific patterns of infection, especially just prior to slaughter. RESULTS(More)
Theoretical biology encompasses a broad range of biological disciplines ranging from mathematical biology and biomathematics to philosophy of biology. Adopting a broad definition of "biology", Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling, an open access journal, considers original research studies that focus on theoretical ideas and models associated with(More)
Sphingolipid long-chain base (LCB) kinase catalyses the phosphorylation of sphingolipid LCB to form LCB 1-phosphate. Based on sequence identity to a murine sphingosine kinase (murine SPHK1a), we isolated and characterized a LCB kinase-like cDNA in Arabidopsis thaliana. The deduced amino acid sequence of the homologous cDNA shows several regions that are(More)