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Localization of specific carbohydrates in the cochlea was examined by postembedding labelling by wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-gold at the electron microscopic level. Gold labelling was observed in the tectorial membrane, basilar membrane, basal membrane of the capillary and other connective tissues. In these areas, the labelling was observed over either(More)
The distribution of wheat germ agglutinin(WGA)-binding sites in the organ of Corti of the guinea pig and mongolian gerbil was studied. WGA was conjugated with gold particles and applied on thin sections of the cochlea embedded in Spurr's resin and in Lowicryl K4M. WGA-binding sites were found on the plasma membrane, lysosomes and cytoskeletons of hair and(More)
Gap junctions in the neural retinae of newly hatched chickens were examined in thin section and by freeze cleaving. Unusual gap junctions containing linear arrays of intramembrane particles are found between principal and accessory cones which form a double cone at the region of the outer limiting membrane. These unusual gap junctions are often continuous(More)
alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors are probably the most widespread excitatory neurotransmitter receptors of the central nervous system, and they play a role in most normal and pathological neural activities. However, previous detailed studies of AMPA subunit distribution have been limited mainly to the(More)
Ultrastructural studies of thin-sectioned and freeze-cleaved materials were performed on developing retinal tissues of 3- to 9-day-old chick embryos to clarify the junctional structures between neural retinal cells and between neural retinal cells and cells of the pigmented epithelium. Frequency, size and position of gap junctions in developing neural(More)
Brain signals measured over a series of experiments have inherent variability because of different physical and mental conditions among multiple subjects and sessions. Such variability complicates the analysis of data from multiple subjects and sessions in a consistent way, and degrades the performance of subject-transfer decoding in a brain-machine(More)
We addressed the role of nitric oxide (NO) in orexin neuron degeneration that has been observed under various pathological conditions. Administration of an NO donor NOC18 (50 nmol) into the third ventricle of mice resulted in a significant decrease of orexin-immunoreactive (-IR) neurons, in contrast to a modest change in melanin-concentrating hormone-IR(More)
In the Mongolian gerbil, bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) for several minutes induces ischemia and delayed neuronal cell death in the CA1 region of the hippocampus due to their incomplete Circle of Willis. In the present study, the expression of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), its receptors (FGFR1 and FGFR2), glial fibrillary acidic(More)
For practical brain-machine interfaces (BMIs), electroencephalography (EEG) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) are the only current methods that are non-invasive and available in non-laboratory environments. However, the use of EEG and NIRS involves certain inherent problems. EEG signals are generally a mixture of neural activity from broad areas, some(More)
Localization of glucuronic acid-containing glycosaminoglycans in the gerbil utricle was examined, using a hyaluronidase-gold labeling technique with special emphasis on the otoconia. Otoconia and the gelatinous layer of the otoconial membrane were strongly labeled by hyaluronidase-gold. The secretory granules in supporting cells were also strongly labeled,(More)