Hiroshi Mitoma

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Humoral immune response to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of stiff-man syndrome and cerebellar ataxia, but the underlying pathomechanism is unclear. Using a whole-cell patch-clamp technique with rat cerebellar slices, we found that immunoglobulins present in the cerebrospinal fluid of an ataxic patient acted(More)
Long-term facilitation of neurotransmission by monoaminergic systems is implicated in the cellular mechanism of memory and learning-related processes at invertebrate synapses. Using whole-cell recording and rat cerebellar slices, we have examined whether mammalian monoamine-containing neurons play analogous roles in synaptic plasticity, and our results(More)
Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the enzyme responsible for converting glutamate to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), is a target of humoral autoimmunity in stiff-man syndrome and subacute cerebellar ataxia. Recently, we found that an anti-GAD autoantibody in the CSF of an ataxic patient selectively suppressed GABA-mediated transmission on cerebellar(More)
In the last few years, a lot of publications suggested that disabling cerebellar ataxias may develop through immune-mediated mechanisms. In this consensus paper, we discuss the clinical features of the main described immune-mediated cerebellar ataxias and address their presumed pathogenesis. Immune-mediated cerebellar ataxias include cerebellar ataxia(More)
To clarify the characteristics of parkinsonian and ataxic gaits, we analyzed electromyograms (EMGs) of the thigh and leg muscles, angular displacements of the hip and leg joints, and floor reaction forces during free walking for each gait phase in 16 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 14 ataxic patients with cerebellar degenerations. We studied 17(More)
OBJECTIVE It has been reported that autoimmune cerebellar ataxias, such as anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)-antibody-positive cerebellar ataxia and gluten ataxia, are treatable. Here, we examined the therapeutic efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) on autoantibody-positive cerebellar ataxia. PATIENTS AND METHODS IVIg therapy was(More)
Roles of monoaminergic neurons in synaptic plasticity are not well clarified at mammalian central synapses. We therefore examined the actions of serotonin and noradrenaline on cerebellar excitatory and inhibitory synapses using the whole-cell recording with rat cerebellar slices. Applications of the two amines selectively elicited long-lasting facilitation(More)
Immune-mediated cerebellar ataxias include gluten ataxia, paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, GAD antibody associated cerebellar ataxia, and Hashimoto’s encephalopathy. Despite the identification of an increasing number of immune-mediated cerebellar ataxias, there is no proposed standardized therapy. We evaluated the efficacies of immunotherapies in(More)
OBJECTIVE With conventional MRI and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), accurate diagnosis and precise classification of cerebellar atrophy are often difficult. The objective was to verify the utility of MRI voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in combination with SPECT using easy Z-score imaging (eZIS) for diagnosing and classifying cerebellar(More)
Molecular mechanisms of myelin removal by macrophages were explored by examining the immunophenotypes of macrophages following injury of rat sciatic nerve, using a combined method of immunohistochemistry and confocal laser microscopy. In the crush injury model, the involvement in myelin clearance of a cytoplasmic antigen specific for monocytes/macrophages,(More)