Hiroshi Mashimo

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The expression patterns of the recently discovered family of semaphorin genes suggests that they have widespread roles in embryonic development. Some seem to guide neuronal growth cones, but otherwise their functions are unknown. Semaphorin III is a membrane-associated secreted protein with a developmentally dynamic pattern of expression, including(More)
BACKGROUND Barrett's esophagus, a condition of intestinal metaplasia of the esophagus, is associated with an increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma. We assessed whether endoscopic radiofrequency ablation could eradicate dysplastic Barrett's esophagus and decrease the rate of neoplastic progression. METHODS In a multicenter, sham-controlled trial, we(More)
Nitric oxide (NO), a potent vasodilator produced by endothelial cells, is thought to be the endothelium-dependent relaxing factor (EDRF) which mediates vascular relaxation in response to acetylcholine, bradykinin and substance P in many vascular beds. NO has been implicated in the regulation of blood pressure and regional blood flow, and also affects(More)
GAP-43 has been termed a "growth" or "plasticity" protein because it is expressed at high levels in neuronal growth cones during development and during axonal regeneration. By homologous recombination, we generated mice lacking GAP-43. The mice die in the early postnatal period. GAP-43-deficient retinal axons remain trapped in the chiasm for 6 days, unable(More)
The mechanisms that maintain the epithelial integrity of the gastrointestinal tract remain largely undefined. The gene encoding intestinal trefoil factor (ITF), a protein secreted throughout the small intestine and colon, was rendered nonfunctional in mice by targeted disruption. Mice lacking ITF had impaired mucosal healing and died from extensive colitis(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Gastrin is a peptide hormone important in the regulation of both acid secretion and differentiation of oxyntic mucosal cells of the stomach. To further elucidate the role of gastrin in the growth and development of the gastrointestinal tract, we have generated mice that are deficient in gastrin. METHODS Gastrin-deficient mice were(More)
Nitric oxide is a ubiquitous molecule implicated in a variety of biological processes. The specific action of nitric oxide depends on its enzymatic sources, namely neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS), and inducible NOS (iNOS), each having distinct tissue localization. Conventional pharmacological antagonists could not distinguish(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS It has been proposed that nitrergic nerves mediate lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation with intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC-IM) as an intermediary. Dysfunction of the nitrergic pathway has been shown to cause LES hypertension and impaired relaxation in achalasia. We determined whether mice with neuronal nitric(More)
Lgr5 has recently been identified as a murine marker of intestinal stem cells. Its expression has not been well characterized in human gastrointestinal tissues, but has been reported in certain cancers. With the increasing appreciation for the role of cancer stem cells or tumor-initiating cells in certain tumors, we sought to explore the expression of Lgr5(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical that is largely produced by three isoforms of NO synthase (NOS): neuronal (nNOS), endothelial (eNOS), and inducible (iNOS). NO regulates numerous processes in the gastrointestinal tract; however, the overall role that NO plays in intestinal inflammation is unclear. NO is upregulated in both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's(More)