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The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors Ascl1/Mash1, Hes1, and Olig2 regulate fate choice of neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, respectively. These same factors are coexpressed by neural progenitor cells. Here, we found by time-lapse imaging that these factors are expressed in an oscillatory manner by mouse neural progenitor cells. In each(More)
Jet-lag symptoms arise from temporal misalignment between the internal circadian clock and external solar time. We found that circadian rhythms of behavior (locomotor activity), clock gene expression, and body temperature immediately reentrained to phase-shifted light-dark cycles in mice lacking vasopressin receptors V1a and V1b (V1a(-/-)V1b(-/-)).(More)
Synchronous oscillations of thousands of cellular clocks in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the circadian centre, are coordinated by precisely timed cell-cell communication, the principle of which is largely unknown. Here we show that the amount of RGS16 (regulator of G protein signalling 16), a protein known to inactivate Gαi, increases at a selective(More)
We used phase models to describe and tune complex dynamic structures to desired states; weak, nondestructive signals are used to alter interactions among nonlinear rhythmic elements. Experiments on electrochemical reactions on electrode arrays were used to demonstrate the power of mild model-engineered feedback to achieve a desired response. Applications(More)
The phenomenon of slow switching in populations of globally coupled oscillators is discussed. This characteristic collective dynamics, which was first discovered in a particular class of the phase oscillator model, is a result of the formation of a heteroclinic loop connecting a pair of clustered states of the population. We argue that the same behavior can(More)
Spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) is an organizing principle of biological neural networks. While synchronous firing of neurons is considered to be an important functional block in the brain, how STDP shapes neural networks possibly toward synchrony is not entirely clear. We examine relations between STDP and synchronous firing in spontaneously(More)
We present a self-organising, decentralised control method for material flows in networks. The concept applies to networks where time sharing mechanisms between conflicting flows in nodes are required and where a coordination of these local switches on a system-wide level can improve the performance. We show that, under certain assumptions, the control of(More)
Spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) with asymmetric learning windows is commonly found in the brain and useful for a variety of spike-based computations such as input filtering and associative memory. A natural consequence of STDP is establishment of causality in the sense that a neuron learns to fire with a lag after specific presynaptic neurons have(More)
Entrainment by a pacemaker, representing an element with a higher frequency, is numerically investigated for several classes of random networks which consist of identical phase oscillators. We find that the entrainment frequency window of a network decreases exponentially with its depth, defined as the mean forward distance of the elements from the(More)
Many systems, ranging from biological and engineering systems to social systems, can be modeled as directed networks, with links representing directed interaction between two nodes. To assess the importance of a node in a directed network, various centrality measures based on different criteria have been proposed. However, calculating the cen-trality of a(More)