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The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors Ascl1/Mash1, Hes1, and Olig2 regulate fate choice of neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, respectively. These same factors are coexpressed by neural progenitor cells. Here, we found by time-lapse imaging that these factors are expressed in an oscillatory manner by mouse neural progenitor cells. In each(More)
We used phase models to describe and tune complex dynamic structures to desired states; weak, nondestructive signals are used to alter interactions among nonlinear rhythmic elements. Experiments on electrochemical reactions on electrode arrays were used to demonstrate the power of mild model-engineered feedback to achieve a desired response. Applications(More)
Spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) is an organizing principle of biological neural networks. While synchronous firing of neurons is considered to be an important functional block in the brain, how STDP shapes neural networks possibly toward synchrony is not entirely clear. We examine relations between STDP and synchronous firing in spontaneously(More)
Spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) with asymmetric learning windows is commonly found in the brain and useful for a variety of spike-based computations such as input filtering and associative memory. A natural consequence of STDP is establishment of causality in the sense that a neuron learns to fire with a lag after specific presynaptic neurons have(More)
Jet-lag symptoms arise from temporal misalignment between the internal circadian clock and external solar time. We found that circadian rhythms of behavior (locomotor activity), clock gene expression, and body temperature immediately reentrained to phase-shifted light-dark cycles in mice lacking vasopressin receptors V1a and V1b (V1a(-/-)V1b(-/-)).(More)
Synchronous oscillations of thousands of cellular clocks in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the circadian centre, are coordinated by precisely timed cell-cell communication, the principle of which is largely unknown. Here we show that the amount of RGS16 (regulator of G protein signalling 16), a protein known to inactivate Gαi, increases at a selective(More)
Entrainment by a pacemaker, representing an element with a higher frequency, is numerically investigated for several classes of random networks which consist of identical phase oscillators. We find that the entrainment frequency window of a network decreases exponentially with its depth, defined as the mean forward distance of the elements from the(More)
Random networks of coupled phase oscillators, representing an approximation for systems of coupled limit-cycle oscillators, are considered. Entrainment of such networks by periodic external forcing applied to a subset of their elements is numerically and analytically investigated. For a large class of interaction functions, we find that the entrainment(More)
We show that peculiar collective dynamics called slow switching arises in a population of leaky integrate-and-fire oscillators with delayed, all-to-all pulse couplings. By considering the stability of cluster states and symmetry possessed by our model, we argue that saddle connections between a pair of the two-cluster states are formed under general(More)
We numerically study a directed small-world network consisting of attractively coupled, identical phase oscillators. While complete synchronization is always stable, it is not always reachable from random initial conditions. Depending on the shortcut density and on the asymmetry of the phase coupling function, there exists a regime of persistent chaotic(More)