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Fucosylation of intestinal epithelial cells, catalyzed by fucosyltransferase 2 (Fut2), is a major glycosylation mechanism of host-microbiota symbiosis. Commensal bacteria induce epithelial fucosylation, and epithelial fucose is used as a dietary carbohydrate by many of these bacteria. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate the(More)
The mammalian intestinal tract is colonized by trillions of beneficial commensal bacteria that are anatomically restricted to specific niches. However, the mechanisms that regulate anatomical containment remain unclear. Here, we show that interleukin-22 (IL-22)-producing innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are present in intestinal tissues of healthy mammals.(More)
Cholera toxin (CT), the most commonly used mucosal adjuvant in experimental animals, is unsuitable for humans because of potent diarrhea-inducing properties. We have constructed two CT-A subunit mutants, e.g., serine-->phenylalanine at position 61 (S61F), and glutamic acid-->lysine at 112 (E112K) by site-directed mutagenesis. Neither mutant CT (mCT), in(More)
The purpose of the present study was to determine the extent of immunologic responses, particularly immunopathologic responses, within the upper and lower respiratory tracts after intranasal immunization using the mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin (CT). BALB/c mice were nasally immunized with influenza virus vaccine combined with CT. The inclusion of the(More)
The mucosal immune system forms the largest part of the entire immune system, containing about three-quarters of all lymphocytes and producing grams of secretory IgA daily to protect the mucosal surface from pathogens. To evoke the mucosal immune response, antigens on the mucosal surface must be transported across the epithelial barrier into organized(More)
Specific intestinal microbiota has been shown to induce Foxp3(+) regulatory T cell development. However, it remains unclear how development of another regulatory T cell subset, Tr1 cells, is regulated in the intestine. Here, we analyzed the role of two probiotic strains of intestinal bacteria, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium breve in T cell(More)
To investigate the potential involvement of T helper (Th)2-type responses in murine models of intestinal inflammation, we used trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-hapten to induce inflammatory bowel disease in situations where Th1-type responses with interferon (IFN)-gamma synthesis are either diminished or do not occur. Intracolonic administration of TNBS(More)
Pro-inflammatory cytokines have been shown to be involved in the genesis, persistence, and severity of neuropathic pain following nerve injury. The transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB), plays a pivotal role in regulating pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression. To elucidate the role of NF-kappaB in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain,(More)
Antigen-specific B cell responses to mucosally delivered proteins are dependent upon CD4-positive T helper (Th) cells, and the frequency of Th1 and Th2 cell responses after oral immunization may determine the level and isotype of mucosal antibody responses. We have used a protein-based vaccine, tetanus toxoid (TT), together with the mucosal adjuvant cholera(More)
Freshly isolated murine PP B cells were cultured with 10 different cytokines, including IL-1 alpha, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and TGF-beta, to investigate a possible role for these cytokines in induction of Ig synthesis. Of interest was the finding that only IL-5 and both mouse recombinant (mr) and human recombinant (hr) IL-6(More)