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We have revealed that 100-200 clusters, filled with closely packed lymphocytes, can be found throughout the length of the antimesenteric wall of the mouse small intestine. They are composed of a large B cell area, including a germinal center, and epithelia overlying the clusters contain M cells. A large fraction of B cells displays B220+ CD19+ CD23+(More)
Capable of inducing antigen-specific immune responses in both systemic and mucosal compartments without the use of syringe and needle, mucosal vaccination is considered ideal for the global control of infectious diseases. In this study, we developed a rice-based oral vaccine expressing cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) under the control of the(More)
The intestinal cell types responsible for defense against pathogenic organisms remain incompletely characterized. Here we identify a subset of CD11c(hi)CD11b(hi) lamina propria dendritic cells (LPDCs) that expressed Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) in the small intestine. When stimulated by the TLR5 ligand flagellin, TLR5(+) LPDCs induced the differentiation of(More)
The mammalian intestinal tract is colonized by trillions of beneficial commensal bacteria that are anatomically restricted to specific niches. However, the mechanisms that regulate anatomical containment remain unclear. Here, we show that interleukin-22 (IL-22)-producing innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are present in intestinal tissues of healthy mammals.(More)
Recent studies indicate that the mechanism of nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) organogenesis is different from that of other lymphoid tissues. NALT has an important role in the induction of mucosal immune responses, including the generation of T helper 1 and T helper 2 cells, and IgA-committed B cells. Moreover, intranasal immunization can lead(More)
Secretory IgA plays a crucial role in the host immune response as a first line of defense. A recent demonstration of in situ IgA class switching in intestinal lamina propria provided an opportunity to reconsider the model for the homing of IgA-committed B cells characterized by distinctive trafficking patterns to effector sites. Those effector sites depend(More)
In recent years, advances in the humanized mouse system have led to significantly increased levels of human hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) engraftment. The remaining limitations in human HSC engraftment and function include lymphoid-skewed differentiation and inefficient myeloid development in the recipients. Limited human HSC function may partially be(More)
Continuous exposure of intestinal mucosal surfaces to diverse microorganisms and their metabolites reflects the biological necessity for a multifaceted, integrated epithelial and immune cell-mediated regulatory system. The development and function of the host cells responsible for the barrier function of the intestinal surface (e.g., M cells, Paneth cells,(More)
  • Koji Hase, Kazuya Kawano, +19 authors Hiroshi Ohno
  • 2009
The mucosal immune system forms the largest part of the entire immune system, containing about three-quarters of all lymphocytes and producing grams of secretory IgA daily to protect the mucosal surface from pathogens. To evoke the mucosal immune response, antigens on the mucosal surface must be transported across the epithelial barrier into organized(More)
Stimulation of mucosal immunity has great potential in vaccinology and immunotherapy. However, the mucosal immune system is more complex than the systemic counterpart, both in terms of anatomy (inductive and effector tissues) and effectors (cells and molecules). Therefore, immunologists entering this field need a precise terminology as a crucial means of(More)