Hiroshi Kitagawa

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1. Changes in excitability of the motor cortex induced by a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were examined by simultaneous recording of the evoked corticospinal volley and the compound surface electromyographic (EMG) response in the biceps brachii following paired-pulse TMS in five conscious subjects. The effects of a varying interstimulus interval(More)
Recent glycobiology studies have suggested fundamental biological functions for chondroitin, chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate, which are widely distributed as glycosaminoglycan sidechains of proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix and at cell surfaces. They have been implicated in the signaling functions of various heparin-binding growth factors(More)
Recent cDNA cloning of the glycosyltransferases involved in the synthesis of the sulfated glycosaminoglycan sidechains of proteoglycans has provided important clues to answering long-standing questions concerning the mechanisms of both chain polymerization and the biosynthetic sorting of glucosaminoglycans (heparin/heparan sulfate) and galactosaminoglycans(More)
Recently, we have reported that ultrasound (US)-induced apoptosis is due to inertial cavitation and that extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by inertial cavitation are not directly correlated with the apoptosis (Honda et al. 2002). The molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by US is not yet sufficiently clear. Here, we examine the role(More)
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, cellular proliferation, and differentiation. Numerous xenobiotic and biological compounds are known to interact with AhR, but it remains an orphan receptor, because its physiological ligand is unknown. We identified AhR ligands(More)
BACKGROUND Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are principal pericellular and extracellular components that form regulatory milieu involving numerous biological and pathophysiological phenomena. Diverse functions of CSPGs can be mainly attributed to structural variability of their polysaccharide moieties, chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans(More)
Cortical plasticity is most evident during a critical period in early life, but the mechanisms that restrict plasticity after the critical period are poorly understood. We found that a developmental increase in the 4-sulfation/6-sulfation (4S/6S) ratio of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), which are components of the brain extracellular matrix,(More)
Glycosaminoglycans such as heparan sulphate and chondroitin sulphate are extracellular sugar chains involved in intercellular signalling. Disruptions of genes encoding enzymes that mediate glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis have severe consequences in Drosophila and mice. Mutations in the Drosophila gene sugarless, which encodes a UDP-glucose dehydrogenase,(More)
Recently, we demonstrated that chondroitin polymerization is achieved by any two combinations of human chondroitin synthase-1 (ChSy-1), ChSy-2 (chondroitin sulfate synthase 3, CSS3), and chondroitin-polymerizing factor (ChPF). Although an additional ChSy family member, called chondroitin sulfate glucuronyltransferase (CSGlcA-T), has been identified, its(More)