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In this study, the infection cycle of bacteriophage Qbeta was investigated. Adsorption of bacteriophage Qbeta to Escherichia coli is explained in terms of a collision reaction, the rate constant of which was estimated to be 4x10(-10) ml/cells/min. In infected cells, approximately 130 molecules of beta-subunit and 2x10(5) molecules of coat protein were(More)
During RNA replication mediated by Qbeta replicase, self-replicating RNAs (RQ RNAs) are amplified without the addition of template RNA. This undesired amplification makes the study of target RNA replication difficult, especially for long RNA such as genomic RNA of Qbeta phage. This perhaps is one of the reasons why the precise rate of genomic RNA(More)
In all living systems, the genome is replicated by proteins that are encoded within the genome itself. This universal reaction is essential to allow the system to evolve. Here, we have constructed a simplified system involving encapsulated macromolecules termed a "self-encoding system", in which the genetic information is replicated by self-encoded(More)
Understanding the origin of life requires knowledge not only of the origin of biological molecules such as amino acids, nucleotides and their polymers, but also the manner in which those molecules are integrated into the organized systems that characterize cellular life. In this article, we introduce a constructive approach to understand how biological(More)
In living cells, biochemical reaction systems are enclosed in small lipidic compartments. To experimentally simulate various biochemical reactions occurring in extant cells, giant liposomes are used to reconstruct an artificial model cell. We present methods for conducting a protein synthesis reaction, followed by the reaction catalyzed by the synthesized(More)
Qbeta replicase, an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of RNA coliphage Qbeta, is a heterotetramer composed of a phage-encoded beta-subunit and three host-encoded proteins: the ribosomal protein S1 (alpha-subunit), EF-Tu, and EF-Ts. Several purification methods for Qbeta replicase were described previously. However, in our efforts to improve the production of(More)
In all living systems, the genetic information is replicated by the self-encoded replicase (Rep); this can be said to be a self-encoding system. Recently, we constructed a self-encoding system in liposomes as an artificial cell model, consisting of a reconstituted translation system and an RNA encoding the catalytic subunit of Qbeta Rep and the RNA was(More)
The kinetics of the RNA replication reaction by Qbeta replicase were investigated. Qbeta replicase is an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase responsible for replicating the RNA genome of coliphage Qbeta and plays a key role in the life cycle of the Qbeta phage. Although the RNA replication reaction using this enzyme has long been studied, a kinetic model that can(More)
We have developed a novel, single-step, isothermal, signal-amplified, and sequence-specific RNA quantification method (L-assay). The L-assay consists of nicking endonuclease, a dual-labeled fluorescent DNA probe (DL-probe), and conformation-interchangeable oligo-DNA (L-DNA). This signal-amplified assay can quantify target RNA concentration in a(More)