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BACKGROUND Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of pathogenic angiogenesis in diseases such as cancer and diabetic retinopathy. Bee products [royal jelly (RJ), bee pollen, and Chinese red propolis] from the honeybee, Apis mellifera, have been used as traditional health foods for centuries. The aim of this study was to investigate the(More)
SUN N8075 is a novel antioxidant with neuroprotective properties. This study was designed to elucidate its neuroprotective effects against 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA)-induced cell death and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced neurotoxicity (known as in vitro and in vivo models of Parkinson's disease, respectively). In the in vitro(More)
The centromere is a chromatin structure essential for correct segregation of sister chromatids, and defects in this region often lead to aneuploidy and cancer. We have previously reported purification of the interphase centromere complex (ICEN) from HeLa cells, and have demonstrated the presence of 40 proteins (ICEN1-40), along with CENP-A, -B, -C, -H and(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative and ischemic disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Chinese propolis and its constituents [chrysin, galangin, pinocembrin, caffeic acid, and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE)] against tunicamycin-induced neuronal cell death in(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which is caused by the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER lumen, is associated with stroke and neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. We evaluated the effect of a selective inducer of immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP) (BiP inducer X; BIX) against both(More)
PURPOSE To determine the vitreous level of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1) in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) or idiopathic macular hole (MH). Furthermore, to investigate the relationships among sVEGFR-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF). DESIGN(More)
The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether cilostazol, a phosphodiesterase-III inhibitor and antiplatelet drug, would prevent tPA-associated hemorrhagic transformation. Mice subjected to 6-h middle cerebral artery occlusion were treated with delayed tPA alone at 6 h, with combined tPA plus cilostazol at 6 h, or with vehicle at 6 h. We used(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the effects of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress on the tight junctions of the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS ER stress was induced in cultured ARPE-19 cells, a human RPE cell line, by exposure to tunicamycin (TM) or to thapsigargin (TG). After 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours of exposure, the(More)
The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant property of honeybee products and their constituents using an ESR method. Antioxidative activity was evaluated as the scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The DPPH radical scavenging activities, in descending order, were: ethanol extract of Chinese red propolis>ethanol(More)
We aimed to examine whether thalidomide might inhibit the neuronal damage resulting from focal cerebral ischemia, and if so to explore the neuroprotective mechanism. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in mice, and thalidomide was intraperitoneally administered a total of three times (at 10 min before,(More)