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Blood samples (n=544) from two different populations (Pygmies and Bantus) in Cameroon, West Africa, were analysed. Serological tests indicated that the anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence in Bantus (20.3 %) was higher than that in Pygmies (2.3 %, P<0.0001), whereas the distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) serological markers was equally high in both(More)
BACKGROUND Regional and subtype-specific mutational patterns of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) are essential for informing first-line antiretroviral (ARV) therapy guidelines and designing diagnostic assays for use in regions where standard genotypic resistance testing is not affordable. We sought to understand the molecular epidemiology of TDR and(More)
The prevalence study and the characterization of hepatitis C virus (HCV) was carried out in the Philippines and the sequence determination of the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR)-Core and the NS5B regions of HCV was carried out in this study. An HCV strain (SE-03-07-1689) collected in Metro Manila, Philippines, belonged to discordant subtypes, 2b and 1b in(More)
To identify hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission routes among injection drug users in Northern Vietnam, plasma samples were collected from 486 drug users in Hai Phong. Plasma viral RNA was extracted from 323 (66.5%) samples that were positive for anti-HCV antibodies. Portions of the HCV 5'-untranslated (5'UTR)-Core and NS5B genes were amplified by(More)
Changes in the expression of arginase and their association with nitrosative stress were investigated using an asthmatic model previously established in NC/Nga mice with mite extract. Mite crude extract (100 microg/day) from Dermatophagoides farinae was administered intranasally for 5 consecutive days (day 0-4), and a single challenge was performed on day(More)
To determine the feasibility of using short-course zidovudine (ZDV) to prevent mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in a breastfeeding population in a rural area in Kenya, pregnant mothers attending clinics in seven health centers in western Kenya between 1996 and 1998 were requested to volunteer for participation in this(More)
We reported previously that the prevalence of drug-resistant HIV-1 among antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive individuals in Northern Vietnam was 2.9% in 2007 and 6.2% in 2008. To investigate the continuing trend of prevalence, we collected plasma samples from 958 individuals in Hai Phong and Hanoi in 2009, extracted viral RNA from HIV-1 antibody-positive(More)
To monitor the presence of genotypic HIV-1 variants circulating in eastern Cameroon, blood samples from 57 HIV-1-infected individuals attending 3 local health centers in the bordering rural villages with Central African Republic (CAR) were collected and analyzed phylogenetically. Out of the 40 HIV-1 strains with positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR)(More)
From the trends of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics in South and Southeast Asia, it was postulated that an HIV epidemic would start as a blood-borne infection among injecting-drug users in the Philippines. In 2002, 560 individuals were recruited in Metro Cebu, Philippines and tested for HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV)(More)
We evaluated the prevalence and profile of antiretroviral treatment (ART)-associated resistance mutations among HIV-1 strains in northern Vietnam by genotypically analyzing strains isolated from ART-naive individuals in Hai Phong, a city in which HIV-1 is highly prevalent. Plasma samples were collected from injecting drug users (IDU, n = 760), female sex(More)