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Here we review a role of a basal ganglia-brainstem (BG-BS) system throughout the mesopontine tegmentum in the control of various types of behavioral expression. First the basal ganglia-brainstem system may contribute to an automatic control of movements, such as rhythmic limb movements and adjustment of postural muscle tone during locomotion, which occurs(More)
Cbfa1 is an essential transcription factor for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. We investigated functional differences among three isoforms of Cbfa1: Type I (originally reported as Pebp2alphaA by Ogawa et al. (Ogawa, E., Maruyama, M., Kagoshima, H., Inuzuka, M., Lu, J., Satake, M., Shigesada, K., and Ito, Y. (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S.(More)
The present study was to determine how afferents from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) of the basal ganglia to the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPN) in the brainstem could contribute to the control of behavioral states. We used anesthetized and acutely decerebrated cats (n=22). Repetitive electrical stimulation (10-100 Hz, 20-50 microA, for(More)
The thermophilic, anaerobic, propionate-oxidizing bacterial populations present in the methanogenic granular sludge in a thermophilic (55 degrees C) upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor were studied by cultivation and in situ hybridization analysis. For isolation of propionate-degrading microbes, primary enrichment was made with propionate as the sole(More)
FGF receptor 2 isoform IIIb (FGFR2b), originally discovered as a receptor for FGF7, is known to be an important receptor in vertebrate morphogenesis, because FGFR2b null mice exhibit agenesis or dysgenesis of various organs, which undergo budding and branching morphogenesis. Since FGF7 null mice do not exhibit marked defects in organogenesis, it has been(More)
16S rRNA-targeted in situ hybridization combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to elucidate the spatial distribution of microbes within two types of methanogenic granular sludge, mesophilic (35 degrees C) and thermophilic (55 degrees C), in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors fed with sucrose-, acetate-, and propionate-based(More)
To better understand the regulation of interleukin-7 receptor (IL-7R) expression, we have pursued a detailed analysis of the structure of the murine and human IL-7R genes. The genes consist of eight exons, the sizes of which are conserved in mouse and human cells, spread out over 24 kbp (murine) and 19 kbp (human). A differential splicing event results in(More)
Expression of the interferon-beta (IFN-beta) gene is induced by a variety of agents, including viruses. Evidence has been provided that a mouse nuclear factor, termed interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1), specifically binds to the upstream regulatory region of the human IFN-beta gene and mediates virus-induced transcription of the gene. In this study, we(More)