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Viral infections commonly induce expression of type I interferon (IFN) genes. The induction is transient and involves transcriptional activation wherein a positive factor, IRF-1, binds to upstream regulatory cis elements. In the present study we report the isolation of a cDNA encoding a novel factor, termed IRF-2, that interacts with the same nucleotide(More)
16S rRNA-targeted in situ hybridization combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to elucidate the spatial distribution of microbes within two types of methanogenic granular sludge, mesophilic (35 degrees C) and thermophilic (55 degrees C), in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors fed with sucrose-, acetate-, and propionate-based(More)
The microbial diversity of two types of methanogenic granular sludge, mesophilic (35 degrees C) and thermophilic (55 degrees C), which had been treating sucrose/propionate/acetate-based artificial wastewater were compared. 16S rDNA clone libraries were constructed by PCR with a prokaryote-specific primer set, and partial sequencing of the clonal 16S rDNAs(More)
Cbfa1 is an essential transcription factor for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. We investigated functional differences among three isoforms of Cbfa1: Type I (originally reported as Pebp2alphaA by Ogawa et al. (Ogawa, E., Maruyama, M., Kagoshima, H., Inuzuka, M., Lu, J., Satake, M., Shigesada, K., and Ito, Y. (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S.(More)
Here we review a role of a basal ganglia-brainstem (BG-BS) system throughout the mesopontine tegmentum in the control of various types of behavioral expression. First the basal ganglia-brainstem system may contribute to an automatic control of movements, such as rhythmic limb movements and adjustment of postural muscle tone during locomotion, which occurs(More)
Expression of the interferon-beta (IFN-beta) gene is induced by a variety of agents, including viruses. Evidence has been provided that a mouse nuclear factor, termed interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1), specifically binds to the upstream regulatory region of the human IFN-beta gene and mediates virus-induced transcription of the gene. In this study, we(More)
FGF receptor 2 isoform IIIb (FGFR2b), originally discovered as a receptor for FGF7, is known to be an important receptor in vertebrate morphogenesis, because FGFR2b null mice exhibit agenesis or dysgenesis of various organs, which undergo budding and branching morphogenesis. Since FGF7 null mice do not exhibit marked defects in organogenesis, it has been(More)
A new anaerobic, thermophilic, syntrophic, fatty-acid-oxidizing bacterium designated strain TGB-C1T was isolated from granular sludge in a thermophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The cells were slightly curved rods and were weakly motile. Spore formation was not observed. The optimal temperature for growth was around 55 degrees C and(More)
The present study was to determine how afferents from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) of the basal ganglia to the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPN) in the brainstem could contribute to the control of behavioral states. We used anesthetized and acutely decerebrated cats (n=22). Repetitive electrical stimulation (10-100 Hz, 20-50 microA, for(More)