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The interleukin 1beta converting enzyme (ICE) family plays a pivotal role in programmed cell death and has been implicated in stroke and neurodegenerative diseases. During reperfusion after filamentous middle cerebral artery occlusion, ICE-like cleavage products and tissue immunoreactive interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) levels increased in ischemic mouse brain.(More)
Infarct volume and edema were assessed after transient focal ischemia in mice lacking neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) gene expression. With use of an 8-0 coated monofilament, the middle cerebral artery (MCA) of mutant (n = 32) and wild-type mice [SV-129 (n = 31), C57Black/6 (n = 18)] were occluded for 3 h and reperfused for up to 24 h. Regional CBF(More)
Recently, use of the cardiolipin (CL)-specific fluorescent dye 10-N-nonyl-acridine orange (NAO) revealed CL-rich domains in the Escherichia coli membrane (E. Mileykovskaya and W. Dowhan, J. Bacteriol. 182: 1172-1175, 2000). Staining of Bacillus subtilis cells with NAO showed that there were green fluorescence domains in the septal regions and at the poles.(More)
We investigated the role of neuronal (type I) nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in NMDA-mediated excitotoxicity in wild-type (SV129 and C57BL/6J) and type I NOS knock-out (nNOS-/-) mice and examined its relationship to apoptosis. Excitotoxic lesions were produced by intrastriatal stereotactic NMDA microinjections (10-20 nmol). Lesion size was dose- and(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are signaling receptors in the innate immune system that is a specific immunologic response to systemic bacterial infection. We investigated whether cerebral ischemia induced by the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h differed in mice that lack a functional TLR3, TLR4, or TLR9 signaling pathway. TLR4, but not TLR3 or(More)
We used transgenic mice expressing a dominant negative mutation of interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE) (C285G) in a model of transient focal ischemia in order to investigate the role of ICE in ischemic brain damage. Transgenic mutant ICE mice (n = 11) and wild-type littermates (n = 9) were subjected to 3 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion followed(More)
To explore the role of the interleukin (IL)-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE) in neuronal apoptosis, we designed a mutant ICE gene (C285G) that acts as a dominant negative ICE inhibitor. Microinjection of the mutant ICE gene into embryonal chicken dorsal root ganglial neurons inhibits trophic factor withdrawal-induced apoptosis. Transgenic mice expressing the(More)
The molecular cloning and the determination of the nucleotide sequence of the ispA gene responsible for farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) synthase [EC 2.5.1.1] activity in Escherichia coli are described. E. coli ispA strains have temperature-sensitive FPP synthase, and the defective gene is located at about min 10 on the chromosome. The wild-type ispA gene was(More)
The prc gene, which is involved in cleavage of the C-terminal peptide from the precursor form of penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP 3) of Escherichia coli, was cloned and mapped at 40.4 min on the chromosome. The gene product was identified as a protein of about 80 kDa in maxicell and in vitro systems. Fractionation of the maxicells producing the product(More)
Metallothioneins (MTs) are small cysteine-rich proteins found widely throughout the mammalian body, including the CNS. MT-1 and -2 protect against reactive oxygen species and free radicals. We investigated the role of MT-1 and -2 using MT-1,-2 knockout (KO) mice. MT-1,-2 KO mice exhibited greater neuronal damage after permanent middle cerebral artery(More)