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In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy(More)
Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) is constitutively activated in a variety of cancer types, including malignant gliomas. STAT3 is activated by phosphorylation of a tyrosine residue, after which it dimerizes and translocates into the nucleus. There it regulates the expression of several genes responsible for proliferation and(More)
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a downstream effector of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway and a central modulator of cell proliferation in malignant gliomas. Therefore, the targeting of mTOR signaling is considered a promising therapy for malignant gliomas. However, the mechanisms underlying the(More)
FK-506, a novel immunosuppressant, has been isolated from the fermentation broth of Streptomyces tsukubaenis No. 9993 as colorless prism and the molecular formula was determined as C44H69NO12.H2O. The compound suppressed immune responses in vitro and in vivo with mice. This immunosuppressive effect was more potent than that of ciclosporin.
The immuno-pharmacological profile of a novel immunosuppressive agent, FK-506 produced by a streptomycete, is presented here. We proceeded to test the effect of the agent on various in vitro immune systems. It showed that mixed lymphocyte reaction, cytotoxic T cell generation, the production of T cell-derived soluble mediators such as interleukin 2 (IL-2),(More)
Prognostic factors for low-grade astrocytomas have been proposed, but optimal treatment remains controversial. Eighty-eight consecutive adult patients with supratentorial low-grade astrocytomas were retrospectively reviewed to determine specific factors influencing outcome. All underwent craniotomy (43 radical resections, 45 nonradical resections). Sex, age(More)
The biological effects of type I serine/threonine kinase receptors and Smad proteins were examined using an adenovirus-based vector system. Constitutively active forms of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptors (BMPR-IA and BMPR-IB; BMPR-I group) and those of activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)-1 and ALK-2 (ALK-1 group) induced alkaline phosphatase(More)
Autophagy is a response of cancer cells to various anticancer therapies. It is designated as programmed cell death type II and characterized by the formation of autophagic vacuoles in the cytoplasm. The Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathways are(More)
Despite the use of potent antibiotics and intensive supportive care, mortality remains high among septic shock patients, especially those with endotoxemia. To remove endotoxin directly from the blood, a material consisting of polymyxin B that is immobilized on fibers (PMX-F) and that can selectively detoxify endotoxin was developed. In a preliminary(More)