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The cholinergic pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTN) is one of the major ascending arousal systems in the brain stem and is linked to motor, limbic, and sensory systems. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that PPTN would be related to the integrative control of movement, reinforcement, and performance of tasks in behaving animals. To(More)
— This paper describes an ultrasonic tagging system developed for robustly observing human activity in a living area. Using ultrasonic transmitter tags with unique identifiers, the system is shown through experimental application to be able to track the three-dimensional motion of tagged objects in real time with high accuracy, resolution and robustness to(More)
BACKGROUND Reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 is thought to be a major cause of adult idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis or Bell's palsy. However, few studies have examined the pathogenesis of this condition in children. Serologic assays and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of paired sera and saliva samples were used here to investigate(More)
When a gap period is inserted between the fixation point extinction and the target presentation, the distribution of saccadic reaction times has two distinct peaks: one at 150-250 ms (ordinary saccades) and another at approximately 100 ms (express saccades). The distribution of saccadic reaction times can be explained by the linear approach to threshold(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of valacyclovir and prednisolone in comparison with those of placebo and prednisolone for the treatment of Bell's palsy, excluding zoster sine herpete. STUDY DESIGN Prospective, multicenter, randomized placebo-controlled study. SETTING Six academic tertiary referral centers. PATIENTS Ultimately, 221 patients with(More)
The mechanism by which reactivation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes facial paralysis in Ramsay Hunt syndrome remains unclear. The relationship between VZV load and the onset of facial paralysis was analyzed in 42 patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome. The patients were divided into three groups according to the times of appearance of zoster and of(More)
OBJECTIVES The mechanism by which varicella-zoster virus (VZV) reactivation causes cochleovestibular symptoms (CVSs) in patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) remains to be elucidated. The present study analyzed the relationship between VZV load and the onset of CVSs in RHS. METHODS The subjects consisted of 56 patients with RHS; 29 exhibited CVSs and(More)
This paper describes a method for robustly detecting and efficiently recognizing daily human behavior in the real world. The proposed method involves real-world sensorization using ultrasonic tags to robustly observe behavior, real-world virtualization to create a virtual environment by modeling real objects using a stereovision system, and virtual(More)
We have investigated whether the copy number of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in saliva correlates with the clinical symptoms in patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome. A real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay was used to examine the VZV DNA copy number in saliva samples from 37 patients. We detected VZV DNA in 6 of the 7 patients with(More)