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The cholinergic pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTN) is one of the major ascending arousal systems in the brain stem and is linked to motor, limbic, and sensory systems. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that PPTN would be related to the integrative control of movement, reinforcement, and performance of tasks in behaving animals. To(More)
— This paper describes an ultrasonic tagging system developed for robustly observing human activity in a living area. Using ultrasonic transmitter tags with unique identifiers, the system is shown through experimental application to be able to track the three-dimensional motion of tagged objects in real time with high accuracy, resolution and robustness to(More)
When a gap period is inserted between the fixation point extinction and the target presentation, the distribution of saccadic reaction times has two distinct peaks: one at 150-250 ms (ordinary saccades) and another at approximately 100 ms (express saccades). The distribution of saccadic reaction times can be explained by the linear approach to threshold(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of valacyclovir and prednisolone in comparison with those of placebo and prednisolone for the treatment of Bell's palsy, excluding zoster sine herpete. STUDY DESIGN Prospective, multicenter, randomized placebo-controlled study. SETTING Six academic tertiary referral centers. PATIENTS Ultimately, 221 patients with(More)
To clarify the role of cholinergic inputs to the intermediate layer of the superior colliculus (SC), we examined the effect of microinjection of nicotine into the SC on visually guided saccades in macaque monkeys. After injection of 0.4-2 microl of 1-100 mM nicotine into the SC, frequency of extremely short latency saccades (express saccades; reaction time(More)
This paper presents an adaptive image decomposition method based on the newly proposed texture descriptor, which combines contrast variation and structure correlation. By incorporating it into the classical edge-preserving bilateral filter, we construct an adaptive nonlinear filter capable of preserving edges and removing texture parts effectively. We(More)
This paper describes a method for robustly detecting and efficiently recognizing daily human behavior in the real world. The proposed method involves real-world sensorization using ultrasonic tags to robustly observe behavior, real-world virtualization to create a virtual environment by modeling real objects using a stereovision system, and virtual(More)