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We have identified a subregion in the monkey primary precentral motor cortex (MI) that is characterized by its relationship to bilateral or ipsilateral hand movements. The subregion is located between the digit and face representation areas. The majority of single cells in this portion of MI exhibit distinct activity before and during visually triggered(More)
The supplementary motor area (SMA) of primates has been implicated in the initiation and execution of limb movements. However, when a motor task was extensively overlearned, few SMA neurons, if any, were active before the movement onset. Subsequent lesions of the primary motor cortex gave rise to the appearance of premovement activity changes, indicating(More)
1. Single-unit activity in the cingulate cortex of the monkey was recorded during the performance of sensorially (visual, auditory, or tactile) triggered or self-paced forelimb key press movements. 2. Microelectrodes were inserted into the broad rostrocaudal expanse of the cingulate cortex, including the upper and lower banks of the cingulate sulcus and the(More)
1. We studied the responsiveness of neurons in the primary motor cortex (MI) of monkeys (Macacafuscata) to electrical stimulation of the supplementary motor area (SMA), primary sensory cortex (SI), and the ventral subnucleus of the thalamus (VPLo) with chronically implanted electrodes. 2. All neurons examined in this study were characterized by their(More)
The cholinergic pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTN) is one of the major ascending arousal systems in the brain stem and is linked to motor, limbic, and sensory systems. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that PPTN would be related to the integrative control of movement, reinforcement, and performance of tasks in behaving animals. To(More)
When a gap period is inserted between the fixation point extinction and the target presentation, the distribution of saccadic reaction times has two distinct peaks: one at 150-250 ms (ordinary saccades) and another at approximately 100 ms (express saccades). The distribution of saccadic reaction times can be explained by the linear approach to threshold(More)
— This paper describes an ultrasonic tagging system developed for robustly observing human activity in a living area. Using ultrasonic transmitter tags with unique identifiers, the system is shown through experimental application to be able to track the three-dimensional motion of tagged objects in real time with high accuracy, resolution and robustness to(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of valacyclovir and prednisolone in comparison with those of placebo and prednisolone for the treatment of Bell's palsy, excluding zoster sine herpete. STUDY DESIGN Prospective, multicenter, randomized placebo-controlled study. SETTING Six academic tertiary referral centers. PATIENTS Ultimately, 221 patients with(More)
To clarify the role of cholinergic inputs to the intermediate layer of the superior colliculus (SC), we examined the effect of microinjection of nicotine into the SC on visually guided saccades in macaque monkeys. After injection of 0.4-2 microl of 1-100 mM nicotine into the SC, frequency of extremely short latency saccades (express saccades; reaction time(More)