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To adapt behavior to a changing environment, one must monitor outcomes of executed actions and adjust subsequent actions accordingly. Involvement of the medial frontal cortex in performance monitoring has been suggested, but little is known about neural processes that link performance monitoring to performance adjustment. Here, we recorded from neurons in(More)
To determine the possible involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and muscarinic activation of the perirhinal cortex in object recognition, an NMDA antagonist (d,l-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5)) and a muscarinic antagonist (scopolamine) were injected into the perirhinal cortex of rats. A high dose of AP5 (60 mM) and two doses of scopolamine (20(More)
In humans, stressful events during pregnancy may raise the risk of psychiatric disorders in offspring, and studies with rodents have found that physical prenatal stress can cause changes in the physiology, neurobiology, and behavior of offspring. In the present study, we examined whether psychological prenatal stress with little physical stress could cause(More)
To clarify whether BMAL1 is involved in the photic signal transduction in the mammalian circadian clock, we examined the effects of a single light pulse on the level of BMAL1 mRNA in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of rats by in situ hybridization. Rats were exposed to 30 min light of ca. 300 lux at six different phases in constant darkness and(More)
To clarify functional roles of histamine in the circadian clock system, circadian rhythms of behavior and clock gene expression in the brain were examined in the mouse lacking histidine decarboxylase (HDC-/- mouse). Wheel-running and spontaneous locomotion were recorded under light-dark cycle (LD) and constant darkness (DD). mPer1, mPer2 and mBMAL1 mRNA(More)
Antidepressants, especially tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are widely used for the treatment of various types of chronic and neuropathic pain. The antinociceptive effects of TCAs are, however, complicated. Therefore, two kinds of newer antidepressants whose functions have been more fully clarified were selected, milnacipran, a serotonin and noradrenaline(More)
The ability of nursing mothers to entrain the circadian pacemaker of rat pups was examined by measuring the rat Per1 (rPer1) and rPer2 expression levels in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). Newborn rats from mothers under a light-dark cycle (LD) were blinded immediately after birth and reared by foster mothers under either LD (LD blind pups) or reversed(More)
The present study was designed to determine the degree of functional dissociation between the rat perirhinal cortex and hippocampus for reference memory performance on object and place discrimination tasks. In one experiment, 30 rats were trained on a two-pair concurrent object discrimination task in an elevated radial arm maze. Rats with a perirhinal(More)
To clarify the role of Clock in the photic signal transduction of rat circadian clock, we cloned and sequenced rat Clock and examined the effect of a single light pulse on the Clock mRNA expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) by in situ hybridization. Rats were exposed to a 30 min light pulse ( approximately 300 lx) at one of six circadian phases(More)
CS mice exhibit a spontaneous splitting in the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity under constant darkness, suggesting that they contain two weakly coupled oscillators in the circadian clock system regulating locomotor activity rhythm. In order to clarify whether the two oscillators are located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a site of the master(More)