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In Arabidopsis, the induction of a dehydration-responsive gene, rd22, is mediated by abscisic acid (ABA) and requires protein biosynthesis for ABA-dependent gene expression. Previous experiments established that a 67-bp DNA fragment of the rd22 promoter is sufficient for dehydration- and ABA-induced gene expression and that this DNA fragment contains two(More)
Xenopus actin-interacting protein 1 (XAip1) is thought to promote fragmentation of actin filaments by cofilin. To examine the mechanism of XAip1, we measured polymer lengths by fluorescence microscopy and the concentration of filament ends with an elongation assay. Cofilin creates ends by severing actin filaments. XAip1 alone does not sever actin filaments(More)
In contrast to the slow rate of depolymerization of pure actin in vitro, populations of actin filaments in vivo turn over rapidly. Therefore, the rate of actin depolymerization must be accelerated by one or more factors in the cell. Since the actin dynamics in Listeria monocytogenes tails bear many similarities to those in the lamellipodia of moving cells,(More)
Two cDNAs, isolated from a Xenopus laevis embryonic library, encode proteins of 168 amino acids, both of which are 77% identical to chick cofilin and 66% identical to chick actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF), two structurally and functionally related proteins. These Xenopus ADF/cofilins (XADs) differ from each other in 12 residues spread throughout the(More)
The present study was designed to determine the degree of functional dissociation between the rat perirhinal cortex and hippocampus for reference memory performance on object and place discrimination tasks. In one experiment, 30 rats were trained on a two-pair concurrent object discrimination task in an elevated radial arm maze. Rats with a perirhinal(More)
To determine the possible involvement of NMDA and muscarinic activation of the perirhinal cortex in object discrimination, an NMDA antagonist, D,L-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5), and a muscarinic antagonist, scopolamine (SCP) were injected into the perirhinal cortex of rats. Each drug at the higher dose (AP5 60 mM, SCP 80 mM) significantly(More)
To investigate the role mesostriatal dopamine system plays in pain processing, we examined the withdrawal response of rat hindpaws to mechanical stimulus at 1, 4, and 12 weeks after unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the mesostriatal pathway. In all of the 6-OHDA rats examined, almost no tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity was detected(More)
To determine the possible involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and muscarinic activation of the perirhinal cortex in object recognition, an NMDA antagonist (d,l-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5)) and a muscarinic antagonist (scopolamine) were injected into the perirhinal cortex of rats. A high dose of AP5 (60 mM) and two doses of scopolamine (20(More)
In humans, stressful events during pregnancy may raise the risk of psychiatric disorders in offspring, and studies with rodents have found that physical prenatal stress can cause changes in the physiology, neurobiology, and behavior of offspring. In the present study, we examined whether psychological prenatal stress with little physical stress could cause(More)
We recently reported that circular RNA is efficiently translated by a rolling circle amplification (RCA) mechanism in a cell-free Escherichia coli translation system. Recent studies have shown that circular RNAs composed of exonic sequences are abundant in human cells. However, whether these circular RNAs can be translated into proteins within cells remains(More)