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In seasonally breeding animals, the circadian and photoperiodic regulation of neuroendocrine system is important for precisely-timed reproduction. Kisspeptin, encoded by the Kiss1 gene, acts as a principal positive regulator of the reproductive axis by stimulating gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurone activity in vertebrates. However, the precise(More)
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is an evolutionarily conserved neuropeptide with 10 amino acid residues, which possesses some structural variants. A molecular form known as chicken GnRH II ([His(5) Trp(7) Tyr(8)] GnRH, cGnRH II) is widely distributed in vertebrates, and has recently been implicated in the regulation of sexual behavior and food intake(More)
Kisspeptins are a family of neuropeptides encoded by Kiss1 and Kiss2 genes, and participate in neuroendocrine regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion through activating their receptor, Kiss1r (or GPR54). Bioinformatic analyses have shown that there is a single gene for each kisspeptin (Kiss2) and its receptor (Kiss1r) in pufferfish,(More)
Lifetime augmentation has always been an interesting subject of vital significance in wireless sensor networks. Excess extent of energy is dissipated during data transmission to the base station (sink) from normal sensor nodes. Clustering is an efficacious way of augmenting the life span by optimizing (reducing) the energy dissipation of WSNs. Many numbers(More)
Neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY) is a potent orexigenic neuropeptide implicated in feeding regulation in rodents. However, the involvement of NPY in feeding behavior has not well been studied in fish. Therefore, we investigated the role of NPY in food intake using a tiger puffer (Takifugu rubripes) model. We observed the distribution of NPY-like immunoreactivity(More)
Among the RFamide peptide family, the LPXRFamide peptide (LPXRFa) group regulates the release of various pituitary hormones and, recently, LPXRFa genes were found to be regulated by photoperiod via melatonin. As a first step towards investigating the role of LPXRFa on reproductive function in grass puffer (Takifugu niphobles), which spawns in semilunar(More)
Four subtypes of melatonin receptor genes (Mel(1a) 1.4, Mel(1a) 1.7, Mel(1b), and Mel(1c)) are considered to be expressed to mediate various physiological functions of melatonin in goldfish (Carassius auratus). To examine their tissue distribution and diurnal changes in expression levels, we cloned partial gene fragments for these melatonin receptor(More)
Vasotocin (VT) has been shown to influence various aspects of social and sexual behaviors in a broad range of vertebrate species, but less is known about the mechanisms through which this peptide modulates behavior. Additionally, much less is known about roles of isotocin (IT) in regulation of behavior. Grass puffer, Takifugu niphobles, has unique spawning(More)