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Detailed distribution of mRNAs encoding alpha and beta subunits of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) was examined in the brain of rainbow trout by in situ hybridization. In addition, distribution of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was mapped in adjacent parallel sections by neuronal NOS (nNOS) immunocytochemistry and NADPH-diaphorase (NADPHd) histochemistry.(More)
Melatonin and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT), the rate-limiting enzyme in melatonin synthesis, have taken on special importance in vertebrate circadian biology. Recent identification of genes encoding two AANAT (AANAT(1) and AANAT(2)) and two subtypes of melatonin receptor (Mel-R; Mel(1a) and Mel(1b)) in several fish species has led to rapid(More)
The behavior of genes encoding the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) precursor in response to stress has not been extensively studied in teleosts. To clarify this problem, CRH cDNAs were isolated from a hypothalamic cDNA library of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, by screening with PCR products amplified from the hypothalamic mRNA with primers(More)
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is an evolutionarily conserved neuropeptide with 10 amino acid residues, which possesses some structural variants. A molecular form known as chicken GnRH II ([His(5) Trp(7) Tyr(8)] GnRH, cGnRH II) is widely distributed in vertebrates, and has recently been implicated in the regulation of sexual behavior and food intake(More)
Our previous studies suggested that salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH) neurons regulate both final maturation and migratory behavior in homing salmonids. Activation of sGnRH neurons can occur during upstream migration. We therefore examined expression of genes encoding the precursors of sGnRH, sGnRH-I, and sGnRH-II, in discrete forebrain loci of(More)
PURPOSE This study was performed to examine the gelatinolytic and caseinolytic activities and the levels of two proteinase inhibitors, alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha 1-antitrypsin) and alpha 2-macroglobulin, in the human aqueous humor. METHODS Aqueous humor samples were collected during elective surgery in patients with cataracts. Zymography with(More)
The hypothalamic neurosecretory cells (NSCs) which produce and release neurohypophysial hormones are involved in controls of diverse physiological phenomena including homeostatic controls of unconscious functions and reproduction. The far and wide distribution of neurosecretory processes in the discrete brain loci and the neurohypophysis is appropriate for(More)
Kisspeptins are a family of neuropeptides encoded by Kiss1 and Kiss2 genes, and participate in neuroendocrine regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion through activating their receptor, Kiss1r (or GPR54). Bioinformatic analyses have shown that there is a single gene for each kisspeptin (Kiss2) and its receptor (Kiss1r) in pufferfish,(More)
The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis is an excellent model system in which to study the neuronal and molecular substrates of associative learning and its consolidation into long-term memory. Until now, the presence of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-responsive element binding protein (CREB), which is believed to be a necessary component in the process of a learned behavior(More)
Xenoestrogens such as 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) have been shown to affect the parr–smolt transformation, but their mechanisms of action are not known. We therefore examined effects of 4-NP and estradiol-17h (E2) on expression of estrogen receptor (ER) a gene in the liver, gill, pituitary and brain of sockeye salmon to elucidate molecular mechanisms of 4-NP and(More)