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We report a novel gene transfer system using electroporation. We used this technique to introduce a marker gene plasmid containing enhanced green fluorescent protein into mouse brains at embryonic day 12-17 without removing the embryos from the uterus. The embryos were allowed to continue to develop in utero, and more than 80% were born normally expressing(More)
Psychophysical evidence indicates that visual motion can be sensed by low-level (energy-based) and high-level (feature-based) mechanisms. The present experiments were undertaken to determine which of these mechanisms mediates the initial ocular following response (OFR) that can be elicited at ultra-short latencies by sudden motion of large-field images. We(More)
To study the initial part of the mouse optokinetic response, OKR (approximately 500 ms from the onset of visual stimulus motion), we recorded the ocular response to a vertical sinusoidal grating moving at a constant velocity. We found that the magnitude of the response monotonically increased as the stimulus contrast increased. The response showed a narrow(More)
While the predictive nature of the primate smooth pursuit system has been evident through several behavioural and neurophysiological experiments, few models have attempted to explain these results comprehensively. The model we propose in this paper in line with previous models employing optimal control theory; however, we hypothesize two new issues: (1) the(More)
To understand how the CNS uses past experiences to generate movements that accommodate minute-by-minute environmental changes, we studied the trial-by-trial updating of the gain for initiating smooth pursuit eye movements and how this relates to the history of previous trials. Ocular responses in humans elicited by a small perturbing motion presented 300 ms(More)
We studied the effect of the probability of required tracking on the gain of visuomotor transmission for pursuit initiation in monkeys. We recorded the ocular responses to a brief movement (perturbation) of a target located at an eccentric position from the central fixation spot. As soon as the central fixation spot went off, the animal was required to make(More)
Brief movements of a large-field visual stimulus elicit short-latency tracking eye movements termed "ocular following responses" (OFRs). To address the question of whether OFRs can be elicited by purely binocular motion signals in the absence of monocular motion cues, we measured OFRs from monkeys using dichoptic motion stimuli, the monocular inputs of(More)
Ocular following responses (OFRs) were elicited in monkeys at short latencies ( approximately 50ms) by applying motion in the form of successive 1/4-wavelength steps to each of two overlapping vertical sine-wave gratings that had different spatial frequencies. In the first experiment, the two sine waves had spatial frequencies in the ratio 3:5 and moved in(More)
It has been reported that the visuomotor processing underlying the initiation of smooth pursuit eye movement is modulated in relation to the recent experience of eye movements: the initial pursuit eye velocity is larger after experiencing repeated pursuits than saccades. To assess which parameters of the previously executed pursuits play an essential role(More)