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Yokukansan (TJ-54), a herbal medicine, has been used as a cure for insomnia and irritability in children. Yokukansan also improves behavioral and psychological symptoms such as agitation, aggression and irritability in patients with dementia including Alzheimer's disease, in which the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system is perturbed. However, the action(More)
The relationship between neuronal function in the brain and neuropsychological behavior were analyzed in young rats fed a zinc-deficient diet for 1-2 weeks. Serum zinc concentration was less than 50% of that of the control. However, zinc concentration in the hippocampal perfusate measured by the in vivo microdialysis was not decreased after 2-week zinc(More)
To distinguish between catecholaminergic and serotonergic mechanisms for baroreflex regulation in the medulla, we compared rats with chemical lesions produced by injecting 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) into the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) bilaterally at the caudal tip of the area postrema. After 2 weeks, basal blood(More)
To explore whether catecholaminergic lesions produced chemically in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) would alter the baroreflex impairment that normally occurs with age, we compared baroreflex responses in 3- and 14-month-old rats given bilateral microinjections of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or its vehicle into the NTS. After 2 weeks, basal pressures(More)
To determine whether catecholaminergic lesions in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) have age-related baroreflex effects, we compared conscious 3-month- and 14-month-old rats pretreated with either 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or vehicle injected into the NTS. Body weights fell immediately in both age groups, but after 2 weeks the weight loss persisted only(More)
Microinjections of serotonin (5-HT) delivered into the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) elicit opposite cardiovascular effects depending on the doses used; blood pressure and heart rate are decreased by low doses but increased by high doses. To examine this apparent contradiction, we compared cardiovascular and sympathetic nerve responses elicited in(More)
On the basis of the evidence that the excitability of hippocampal glutamatergic neurotransmitter system is enhanced by dietary zinc deficiency, the response of amygdalar neurotransmitter system was checked in young rats fed a zinc-deficient diet for 4 weeks. Extracellular zinc concentration in the amygdala, which was measured by the in vivo microdialysis,(More)
The mechanism of the abnormal increase in extracellular glutamate concentration in the hippocampus induced with 100mM KCl in zinc deficiency is unknown. In the present study, the changes in glutamate release (exocytosis) and GLT-1, a glial glutamate transporter, expression were studied in young rats fed a zinc-deficient diet for 4 weeks. Exocytosis at mossy(More)
The migration and proliferation of endothelial cells play a pivotal role in various vascular diseases. We have previously reported that atrial natriuretic polypeptide (ANP) exerts an antigrowth effect on vascular smooth muscle cells via the guanylate cyclase-coupled mechanism. Because the endothelial cells are known to possess a large number of guanylate(More)
On the basis of the evidence of the enhanced susceptibility to kainate-induced seizures in young rats fed a zinc-deficient diet for 4 weeks, the relationship between zinc release from hippocampal neuron terminals and seizure susceptibility was studied in young rats fed the zinc-deficient diet for 2 weeks. Timm's stain, with which histochemically reactive(More)