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Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is the major energy currency of cells and is involved in many cellular processes. However, there is no method for real-time monitoring of ATP levels inside individual living cells. To visualize ATP levels, we generated a series of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based indicators for ATP that were composed of the(More)
In 2009, the Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy was published. However, its validity has not been fully examined in children. This study aimed to assess this system in an independent large-scale cohort of children. We analyzed 161 consecutive children with newly diagnosed IgA nephropathy from 1977 to 1989 retrospectively. We examined the ability of(More)
Renal hypouricemia (RHU) is a hereditary disease that predisposes affected people to exercise-induced acute renal failure (EIARF). In most patients with RHU, the disorder is caused by loss-of-function mutations in SLC22A12 (solute carrier family 22, member 12), which encodes urate transporter 1 (URAT1). Patients with RHU without any mutations in the URAT1(More)
Some patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) achieve spontaneous remission even when not receiving medication. However, details on such remissions remain unknown. The aim of our study was to clarify this information in the clinical setting of childhood IgAN with minor glomerular abnormalities or focal mesangial proliferation (MGA/FMP). This study was a(More)
Although the Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy appears valid, we found crescents were significantly related to renal outcome in our cohort, whereas segmental glomerulosclerosis (S) was not. The timing of renal biopsy may significantly affect the variables in the Oxford classification. The relationship between biopsy timing and pathological variables(More)
A possible mechanism of cyclosporine (CsA) nephrotoxicity is tubular apoptosis. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been shown to be an apoptosis activator. Glucose-regulated proteins 78 and 94 (GRP78, GRP94, respectively) are ER stress-induced chaperones. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (EIF2α) attenuates protein synthesis. If stress is(More)
Some patients with childhood immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) progress to end-stage renal disease within 20 years, while others achieve spontaneous remission even without medication. Prognosis of IgAN with minimal proteinuria (MP-IgAN, <0.5 g/day/1.73 m2) at diagnosis seems to be generally good. However, the long-term outcome for patients with childhood(More)
Since the beginning of the 1990s, Japanese medical practitioners have extensively prescribed angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors for children with mild IgA nephropathy (IgA-N) and steriods for those with severe IgA-N. We have performed a retrospective cohort study to clarify whether the long-term outcome has improved in Japanese children with(More)
Diabetic osteopenia, a known chronic complication of diabetes, has been demonstrated with alterations in the calcium-vitamin D endocrine system. In order to investigate the relationship between the decrease of bone density and the altered mineral metabolism in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), 104 male clinical-proven NIDDM patients were(More)
A 6-year-old previously healthy Japanese girl was found to have dipstick 2+ proteinuria and a goiter based on the results of a routine school medical examination. Her serum free-thyroxine level was 4.98 ng/dL (normal range 0.95–1.74 ng/dL), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was less than 0.003 μU/mL (0.34–3.88 μU/mL), anti-microsomal(More)