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In the classical view, transmission of signals across synapses in the mammalian brain involves changes in the membrane potential of the postsynaptic cell. The use of high-resolution cellular imaging has revealed excitatory synapses at which postsynaptic, transient alterations in calcium ion concentration are tightly associated with electrical responses.(More)
Climbing fiber (CF) synapse formation onto cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) is critically dependent on the synaptogenesis from parallel fibers (PFs), the other input to PCs. Previous studies revealed that deletion of the glutamate receptor delta2 subunit (GluRdelta2) gene results in persistent multiple CF innervation of PCs with impaired PF synaptogenesis,(More)
The coordinated activity of large numbers of adjacent parallel fiber synapses elevate calcium concentration locally in small regions of Purkinje cell dendrites. Such activity has also been reported to produce long-term depression of parallel fiber synaptic transmission. We have examined the relationship between these two events by combining patch clamp(More)
Patients with chronic renal failure often have hypertension, but the cause of hypertension, other than an excess of body fluid, is not well known. We hypothesized that the bulbospinal neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) are stimulated by uremic toxins in patients with chronic renal failure. To investigate whether RVLM neurons are sensitive(More)
Because excessive glutamate release is believed to play a pivotal role in numerous neuropathological disorders, such as ischemia or seizure, we aimed to investigate whether intrinsic prosaposin (PS), a neuroprotective factor when supplied exogenously in vivo or in vitro, is up-regulated after the excitotoxicity induced by kainic acid (KA), a glutamate(More)
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