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The proliferation and differentiation of cells of many lineages are regulated by secreted proteins known as cytokines. Cytokines exert their biological effect through binding to cell-surface receptors that are associated with one or more members of the JAK family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases. Cytokine-induced receptor dimerization leads to the activation(More)
Little information is available for neurosteroidogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS) of lower vertebrates. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the enzymatic activity and localization of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta5-Delta4-isomerase (3betaHSD), a key steroidogenic enzyme, in the CNS of adult male zebrafish to clarify central(More)
To investigate overcrowding in the posterior cranial fossa as the pathogenesis of adult-type Chiari malformation, the authors studied the morphology of the brainstem and cerebellum within the posterior cranial fossa (neural structures consisting of the midbrain, pons, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata) as well as the base of the skull while taking into(More)
The Janus family of protein tyrosine kinases (JAKs) regulate cellular processes involved in cell growth, differentiation and transformation through their association with cytokine receptors. However, compared with other kinases, little is known about cellular regulators of the JAKs. We have recently identified a JAK-binding protein (JAB) that inhibits JAK(More)
De novo steroidogenesis from cholesterol is a conserved property of vertebrate brains, and such steroids synthesized de novo in the brain are called neurosteroids. The identification of neurosteroidogenic cells is essential to the understanding of the physiological role of neurosteroids in the brain. We have demonstrated recently that neuronal(More)
The Sex-lethal (Sxl) protein of Drosophila melanogaster regulates alternative splicing of the transformer (tra) messenger RNA precursor by binding to the tra polypyrimidine tract during the sex-determination process. The crystal structure has now been determined at 2.6 A resolution of the complex formed between two tandemly arranged RNA-binding domains of(More)
To determine the immunolocalization of ClC-5 in the mouse kidney, we developed a ClC-5-specific rat monoclonal antibody. Immunoblotting demonstrated an 85-kDa band of ClC-5 in the kidney and ClC-5 transfected cells. Immunocytochemistry revealed significant labeling of ClC-5 in brush-border membrane and subapical intracellular vesicles of the proximal(More)
Neurosteroids are synthesized de novo in the brain and the cerebellar Purkinje cell is a major site for neurosteroid formation. We have demonstrated that the rat Purkinje cell actively produces progesterone de novo from cholesterol only during neonatal life and progesterone promotes dendritic growth, spinogenesis and synaptogenesis via its nuclear receptor(More)
A double-label electron microscopic immunostaining procedure was employed to examine the interconnections of glutamic acid decarboxylase(GAD)- and LHRH-immunoreactive neurons in the medial preoptic area of the rat. The results provide ultrastructural evidence that GABA-ergic neurons establish symmetric (Gray II) synapses on LHRH neurons.
UNLABELLED Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP, "amylin") is the amyloid-fibril-forming polypeptide in the islets of Langerhans associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A missense mutation in the IAPP gene associated with early-onset type 2 diabetes has been identified in the Japanese population. This mutation results in a glycine for serine substitution at(More)