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Two cyclooxygenase isozymes catalyze conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2: constitutive COX-1 and inducible COX-2. To assess the role of COX-2 in colorectal tumorigenisis, we determined the effects of COX-2 gene (Ptgs2) knockouts and a novel COX-2 inhibitor on Apc delta716 knockout mice, a model of human familial adenomatous polyposis. A Ptgs2(More)
10. We generated a null VEGFR-3 allele by introducing a LacZ cassette into the VEGFR-3 locus (11). The 3-kb Kpn I–Not I and Bam HI–Kpn I fragments from 129SV mouse genomic DNA library (␭FIX II; Stratagene) were used as the arms of the targeting vector (Fig. 1). The gene-targeting event was confirmed by Southern (DNA) blot analysis (Fig. 1) (D. J. Dumont et(More)
CD44 is an adhesion molecule expressed in cancer stem-like cells. Here, we show that a CD44 variant (CD44v) interacts with xCT, a glutamate-cystine transporter, and controls the intracellular level of reduced glutathione (GSH). Human gastrointestinal cancer cells with a high level of CD44 expression showed an enhanced capacity for GSH synthesis and defense(More)
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), the rate-limiting enzyme for prostanoid biosynthesis, plays a key role in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. Among various prostanoids, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) appears to be most responsible for cancer development. To investigate the role of PGE2 in gastric tumorigenesis, we constructed transgenic mice simultaneously expressing COX-2(More)
The activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling has an important function in gastrointestinal tumorigenesis. It has been suggested that the promotion of Wnt/beta-catenin activity beyond the threshold is important for carcinogenesis. We herein investigated the role of macrophages in the promotion of Wnt/beta-catenin activity in gastric tumorigenesis. We found(More)
Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) I mediates signaling from Rho to the actin cytoskeleton. To investigate the in vivo functions of ROCK-I, we generated ROCK-I-deficient mice. Loss of ROCK-I resulted in failure of eyelid closure and closure of the ventral body wall, which gave rise to the eyes open at birth and omphalocele phenotypes in neonates. Most ROCK-I(-/-)(More)
Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), including the ROCK-I and ROCK-II isoforms, is a protein kinase involved in signaling from Rho to actin cytoskeleton. However, in vivo functions of each ROCK isoform remain largely unknown. We generated mice deficient in ROCK-II by gene targeting. ROCK-II(-/-) embryos were found at the expected Mendelian frequency until 13.5(More)
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays an important role in tumorigenesis through prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) biosynthesis. It has been shown by in vitro studies that PGE(2) signaling transactivates epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) through an intracellular mechanism. However, the mechanisms underlying PGE(2)-induced EGFR activation in in vivo tumors are(More)
Myofibroblasts, also known as activated fibroblasts, constitute an important niche for tumor development through the promotion of angiogenesis. However, the mechanism of stromal fibroblast activation in tumor tissues has not been fully understood. A gastric cancer mouse model (Gan mice) was recently constructed by simultaneous activation of prostaglandin(More)
Mutations in the glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) phosphorylation sites of the beta-catenin gene exon 3 are found in 20-30% of human primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), whereas mutations in the APC or AXIN genes are found in other HCC populations. These data strongly suggest that the Wnt signaling pathway is involved in hepatocarcinogenesis. To(More)