Hiroko Oshima

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Two cyclooxygenase isozymes catalyze conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2: constitutive COX-1 and inducible COX-2. To assess the role of COX-2 in colorectal tumorigenisis, we determined the effects of COX-2 gene (Ptgs2) knockouts and a novel COX-2 inhibitor on Apc delta716 knockout mice, a model of human familial adenomatous polyposis. A Ptgs2(More)
CD44 is an adhesion molecule expressed in cancer stem-like cells. Here, we show that a CD44 variant (CD44v) interacts with xCT, a glutamate-cystine transporter, and controls the intracellular level of reduced glutathione (GSH). Human gastrointestinal cancer cells with a high level of CD44 expression showed an enhanced capacity for GSH synthesis and defense(More)
Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) I mediates signaling from Rho to the actin cytoskeleton. To investigate the in vivo functions of ROCK-I, we generated ROCK-I-deficient mice. Loss of ROCK-I resulted in failure of eyelid closure and closure of the ventral body wall, which gave rise to the eyes open at birth and omphalocele phenotypes in neonates. Most ROCK-I(-/-)(More)
The activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling has an important function in gastrointestinal tumorigenesis. It has been suggested that the promotion of Wnt/beta-catenin activity beyond the threshold is important for carcinogenesis. We herein investigated the role of macrophages in the promotion of Wnt/beta-catenin activity in gastric tumorigenesis. We found(More)
To investigate angiogenesis during intestinal polyp development, we determined the microvessel density (MVD) in polyps of Apc knockout (Apc(Delta716)) mice, a model for human familial adenomatous polyposis. We scored MVD also in several compound mutants carrying Apc(Delta716), namely, mice with an additional mutation in Smad4, in which the polyps progress(More)
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), the rate-limiting enzyme for prostanoid biosynthesis, plays a key role in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. Among various prostanoids, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) appears to be most responsible for cancer development. To investigate the role of PGE2 in gastric tumorigenesis, we constructed transgenic mice simultaneously expressing COX-2(More)
Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), including the ROCK-I and ROCK-II isoforms, is a protein kinase involved in signaling from Rho to actin cytoskeleton. However, in vivo functions of each ROCK isoform remain largely unknown. We generated mice deficient in ROCK-II by gene targeting. ROCK-II(-/-) embryos were found at the expected Mendelian frequency until 13.5(More)
Myofibroblasts, also known as activated fibroblasts, constitute an important niche for tumor development through the promotion of angiogenesis. However, the mechanism of stromal fibroblast activation in tumor tissues has not been fully understood. A gastric cancer mouse model (Gan mice) was recently constructed by simultaneous activation of prostaglandin(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Helicobacter pylori infection induces an inflammatory response, which can contribute to gastric tumorigenesis. Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) results in production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), which mediates inflammation. We investigated the roles of bacterial infection and PGE(2) signaling in gastric tumorigenesis in mice. (More)
Gastric cancer (GC) is associated with chronic inflammation; however, the molecular mechanisms promoting tumorigenesis remain ill defined. Using a GC mouse model driven by hyperactivation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 oncogene, we show that STAT3 directly upregulates the epithelial expression of the inflammatory mediator(More)