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In the field of motor control, two hypotheses have been controversial: whether the brain acquires internal models that generate accurate motor commands, or whether the brain avoids this by using the viscoelasticity of musculoskeletal system. Recent observations on relatively low stiffness during trained movements support the existence of internal models.(More)
Based on satellite observations of Earth's time variable gravity field from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), it is possible to derive variations in terrestrial water storage, which includes groundwater, soil moisture, and snow. Given auxiliary information on the latter two, one can estimate groundwater storage variations. GRACE may be(More)
Motile cilia generate constant fluid flow over epithelial tissue, and thereby influence diverse physiological processes. Such functions of ciliated cells depend on the planar polarity of the cilia and on their basal bodies being oriented in the downstream direction of fluid flow. Recently, another type of basal body planar polarity, characterized by the(More)
In a previous study, we evaluated six 2D barcodes using eight criteria for standardization potential: omnidirectional symbol reading, support for low-resolution cameras, reading robustness under different lighting conditions, barcode reading distance, error correction capability, security, support for multiple character sets, and data capacity. We also(More)
This paper describes a longitudinal analysis of the vowel development of two Japanese infants in terms of spectral resonant peaks. This study aims to investigate when and how the two infants become able to produce categorically separated vowels, and covers the ages of 4 to 60 months in order to provide detailed findings on the developmental process of(More)
Controversy exists regarding the similarity between depression as seen in patients with epilepsy and in those with idiopathic major depression. The objective of this study was to examine whether anger is a distinctive feature of depression in epilepsy. Participants included 487 adult patients with epilepsy (study group) and 85 patients with idiopathic major(More)
P19 embryonic carcinoma (EC) cells are one of the simplest systems for analyzing the neuronal differentiation. To identify the membrane-associated molecules on the neuronal cells involved in the early neuronal differentiation in mice, we generated two monoclonal antibodies, SKY-1 and SKY-2, by immunizing rats with a membrane fraction of the neuronally(More)
A membrane-surface glycoprotein, RANDAM-2, is one of the neuronal cell lineage-specific antigens involved in the neuronal differentiation of P19 embryonic carcinoma (EC) cells and the mouse central nervous system (CNS). Complementary DNA cloning of RANDAM-2 indicated that its nucleotide sequence completely matched that of PA2.26 antigen, a sialomucin-like(More)
The use of colours in 2D barcodes is challenging. This is even more so in barcodes for mobile devices. Although 2D barcodes are fast becoming the ubiquitous tool for mobile computing, most implementations considered monochromatic 2D barcodes. A few colour 2D barcodes are emerging but these implementations only utilises a limited number of colours. In this(More)