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One of the most fundamental and universal properties of human language is a phenomenon called displacement. In the present study, we used multichannel event-related potentials (ERPs) to identify the nature of this phenomenon with Japanese, a subject-object-verb (SOV) language of relatively free word order. The ERPs of sentences of canonical word order (CC)(More)
Because there are sex differences in feeding-related behavior and orexin neurons are involved in feeding, we looked for a possible sex difference in the response of orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area to fasting, using the phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) as a marker of neural activity. Intact male and female(More)
The basidiomycetous yeast Pseudozyma antarctica T-34 is an excellent producer of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), members of the multifunctional extracellular glycolipids, from various feedstocks. Here, the genome sequence of P. antarctica T-34 was determined and annotated. Analysis of the sequence might provide insights into the properties of this yeast(More)
Pseudozyma antarctica is a non-pathogenic phyllosphere yeast known as an excellent producer of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), multi-functional extracellular glycolipids, from vegetable oils. To clarify the genetic characteristics of P. antarctica, we analyzed the 18 Mb genome of P. antarctica T-34. On the basis of KOG analysis, the number of genes (219(More)
The relationship between 2 words is judged by the meanings of words. Here, we examined how the semantic relatedness of words is structured in each individual brain. During measurements of event-related potentials (ERPs), participants performed semantic-relatedness judgments of word pairs. For each participant, we divided word pairs into 2 groups--related(More)
Brain activities were compared between semantic and syntactic processing in the Japanese language using event-related potentials with a 58-ch EEG system. We previously found that semantic violations elicited N400 and syntactic violations elicited P600 but not early left anterior negativity (ELAN) or left anterior negativity (LAN) using a relatively long(More)
Children's foreign-language (FL) learning is a matter of much social as well as scientific debate. Previous behavioral research indicates that starting language learning late in life can lead to problems in phonological processing. Inadequate phonological capacity may impede lexical learning and semantic processing (phonological bottleneck hypothesis).(More)
There is general agreement that the central nervous system in rodents differs between sexes due to the presence of gonadal steroid hormone during differentiation. Sex differences in feeding seem to occur among species, and responses to fasting (i.e., starvation), gonadal steroids (i.e., testosterone and estradiol), and diet (i.e., western-style diet) vary(More)
Neural mechanisms that underlie the processing of lexical pitch-accent in auditory Japanese were investigated by using event-related potentials. Native speakers of Japanese listened to two types of short sentences, both consisting of a noun and a verb. The sentences ended with a verb with either congruous or incongruous pitch-accent pattern, where(More)
A foreign language (a language not spoken in one's community) is difficult to master completely. Early introduction of foreign-language (FL) education during childhood is becoming a standard in many countries. However, the neural process of child FL learning still remains largely unknown. We longitudinally followed 322 school-age children with diverse FL(More)