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In addition to the well-documented mood-stabilizing effects of lithium in manic-depressive illness patients, recent in vitro and in vivo studies in rodents and humans have increasingly implicated that lithium can be used in the treatment of acute brain injuries (e.g., ischemia) and chronic neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's(More)
Treatment of cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells with a therapeutic concentration (0.6 mM) of valproic acid (VPA) for > 24 h caused a time-dependent (t1/2 = 74 h) increase in [3H]saxitoxin binding up to 1.4-fold without altering the KD value; it was prevented by the simultaneous treatment with cycloheximide (an inhibitor of protein synthesis). VPA also(More)
Sepsis is a major clinical challenge and septic encephalopathy is its nasty complication. The pathogenesis and underlying mechanisms of septic encephalopathy are not well understood. This study sought to fully characterize sepsis-associated biochemical and histopathological changes in brains of mice after cecal ligation and puncture, regarded as a highly(More)
The effects of an aggressive biting response on stress-induced noradrenaline (NA) release in the rat amygdala and gastric ulcer formation were studied with an intracerebral microdialysis technique. Rats were exposed to a 60-min period of cold restraint stress with or without being allowed to bite a wooden stick. They were sacrificed 100 min after release(More)
The effects of psychological stress on serotonin (5-HT) release were studied in the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus and the prefrontal cortex in conscious rats with in vivo microdialysis. Psychological stress, wherein emotional factors were predominantly involved, significantly increased extracellular 5-HT levels in these two areas. These findings suggest(More)
BACKGROUND Recently described neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease (NIFID) shows considerable clinical heterogeneity. OBJECTIVE To assess the spectrum of the clinical and neuropathological features in 10 NIFID cases. METHODS Retrospective chart and comprehensive neuropathological review of these NIFID cases was conducted. RESULTS The mean(More)
Infusion of muscimol (5 X 10[-5] M, 60 min) into the nucleus accumbens (NAC) through a dialysis membrane caused a significant increase in extracellular dopamine (DA) and its metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). Fos-like immunoreactivity induced by intra-NAC infusion of muscimol was seen ipsilaterally in many accumbofugal target areas, but no(More)
Infusion of baclofen (10(-4) M, 1 h) into the ventral tegmental area (VTA), the cell body site of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) neuron system in conscious rats, caused a decrease in both axonal and somatodendritic DA release in this neuron system, when monitored by in vivo microdialysis using two probes simultaneously placed in both the NAC and the VTA. Levels(More)
Dopamine (DA) release was simultaneously monitored in the nucleus accumbens (NAC) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) of conscious rats using in vivo microdialysis. During dialysis perfusion, rats were allowed access to food or water for 20 min following a 36 h food and water deprivation period. DA release increased significantly in the NAC and VTA in response(More)
The effect of dopamine (DA) uptake inhibitors (methamphetamine, nomifensine, and phenylethylamine) on the release of endogenous DA from striatal slices of rats pretreated with methamphetamine (6 mg/kg/day for 9 days) was investigated. The exposure of methamphetamine-pretreated rat striatal slices to a low concentration (10(-7) M, 5 X 10(-7) M) of(More)