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Through studies of transgenic and mutant mice, it is possible to describe molecular pathways that control the development of all major trophoblast cell subtypes and structures of the placenta. For example, the proliferation of trophoblast stem cells is dependent on FGF signalling and downstream transcription factors Cdx2, Eomes and Err2. Several bHLH(More)
To explain the generation mechanism of tree growth stresses in relation to time and location inhomogeneity in the secondary wall lignification, we made a theoretical discussion by using an analytical model. In this analysis, time dependence, which has not been explicitly considered in a conventional model, was introduced. This made us possible to simulate(More)
The 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D)/alpha-ketoglutarate dioxygenase gene (tfdA) homolog designated tfdAalpha was cloned and characterized from 2,4-D-degrading bacterial strain RD5-C2. This Japanese upland soil isolate belongs to the Bradyrhizobium-Agromonas-Nitrobacter-Afipia cluster in the alpha subdivision of the class Proteobacteria on the basis of(More)
The distribution of tfdAalpha and cadA, genes encoding 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D)-degrading proteins which are characteristic of the 2,4-D-degrading Bradyrhizobium sp. isolated from pristine environments, was examined by PCR and Southern hybridization in several Bradyrhizobium strains including type strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110 and(More)
Bacillus subtilis has various cell wall hydrolases, however, the functions and hydrolase activities of some enzymes are still unknown. B. subtilis CwlK (YcdD) exhibits high sequence similarity with the peptidoglycan hydrolytic l,d-endopeptidase (PLY500) of Listeria monocytogenes phage and CwlK has the VanY motif which is a d-alanyl-d-alanine(More)
Humans can readily and effortlessly perceive a rich, stable, and unified visual world from a complex visual scene. Yet our internal representation of a visual object appears to be sparse and fragmented. How and where in the brain are such fragmented representations organized into a whole percept? Recent studies have accumulated evidence that some global(More)
The tfdB gene encoding chlorophenol hydroxylase and its homolog were found in 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-degrading strain RD5-C2, which belongs to Bradyrhizobium sp. of alpha-Proteobacteria. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence identities of the two genes, designated tfdBa and tfdBb, were 60% and 57% respectively. Their nucleotide(More)
Even though cell wall proteins of Bacillus subtilis are characterized by specific cell wall retention signals, some of these are also components of the extracellular proteome. In contrast to the majority of extracellular proteins, wall binding proteins disappeared from the extracellular proteome during the stationary phase and are subjected to proteolysis.(More)
A cell wall hydrolase homologue, Bacillus subtilis YddH (renamed CwlT), was determined to be a novel cell wall lytic enzyme. The cwlT gene is located in the region of an integrative and conjugative element (ICEBs1), and a cwlT-lacZ fusion experiment revealed the significant expression when mitomycin C was added to the culture. Judging from the Pfam data(More)
 To predict the origin of longitudinal elasticity of the solid wood in relation to the composite structure of the wood cell wall, an analytical procedure was developed on the basis of the idea of “the reinforced-matrix hypothesis” originally introduced by Barber and Meylan (1964). A multi-layered circular cylinder, having the CML, the S1, and the S2 layers,(More)