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Humans can readily and effortlessly perceive a rich, stable, and unified visual world from a complex visual scene. Yet our internal representation of a visual object appears to be sparse and fragmented. How and where in the brain are such fragmented representations organized into a whole percept? Recent studies have accumulated evidence that some global(More)
The 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D)/alpha-ketoglutarate dioxygenase gene (tfdA) homolog designated tfdAalpha was cloned and characterized from 2,4-D-degrading bacterial strain RD5-C2. This Japanese upland soil isolate belongs to the Bradyrhizobium-Agromonas-Nitrobacter-Afipia cluster in the alpha subdivision of the class Proteobacteria on the basis of(More)
We carried out experiments using a microdialysis method to determine whether activation of 5-HT(3) receptors increases the concentration of GABA in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Intrathecal perfusion of a selective 5-HT(3) receptor agonist, 1-phenylbiguanide (0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mM) dose-dependently, increased GABA concentration, while concentrations of(More)
When dissimilar images are presented to the two eyes, binocular rivalry (BR) occurs, and perception alternates spontaneously between the images. Although neural correlates of the oscillating perception during BR have been found in multiple sites along the visual pathway, the source of BR dynamics is unclear. Psychophysical and modeling studies suggest that(More)
Occlusion is a primary challenge facing the visual system in perceiving object shapes in intricate natural scenes. Although behavior, neurophysiological, and modeling studies have shown that occluded portions of objects may be completed at the early stage of visual processing, we have little knowledge on how and where in the human brain the completion is(More)
Here we created two different multisubject maps (16 subjects) to characterize interindividual variability in the positions of human visual areas (V1, dorsal and ventral parts of V2/3, V3A, V3B, V7, LOc, MT+, and hV4 [or V4v and V8]), which were localized using fMRI and coregistered using a surface-based method. The first is a probability map representing(More)
Estrogen replacement in postmenopausal women may help prevent or delay development of Alzheimer's disease. Because loss of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons with reductions in choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) concentration are associated with Alzheimer's disease, we investigated the effect of estradiol (E(2)) and J 861, a non-feminizing estrogen, on(More)
Numerous clinical studies have reported that ingestion of chocolate reduces the risk of metabolic syndrome. However, the mechanisms by which this occurs remain unclear. In this murine study, the metabolic-enhancing activity of a 10 mg/kg mixture of flavan-3-ol fraction derived from cocoa (FL) was compared with the same single dose of (-)-epicatechin (EC).(More)
The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of cell walls of wild-type and lipoteichoic acid-defective strains of Bacillus subtilis 168 to adsorb rare earth ions. Freeze-dried cell powders prepared from both strains were used for the evaluation of adsorption ability for the rare earth ions, namely, La(III), Eu(III), and Tm(III). The rare earth(More)
Functional homology between human and macaque visual cortices has provided an important cue to functional subdivisions of the human visual cortex, but it is unclear beyond V1. We estimated the sizes and the visual field eccentricity functions of the extrastriate visual areas of human brains using MRI and fMRI measurements to analyze the interindividual and(More)