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The crystal structure of bovine heart cytochrome c oxidase at 2.8 A resolution with an R value of 19.9 percent reveals 13 subunits, each different from the other, five phosphatidyl ethanolamines, three phosphatidyl glycerols and two cholates, two hemes A, and three copper, one magnesium, and one zinc. Of 3606 amino acid residues in the dimer, 3560 have been(More)
We determined the immunohistochemical distributions of orexin-A and orexin-B, hypothalamic peptides that function in the regulation of feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. Orexin-A and -B neurons were restricted to the lateral and posterior hypothalamus, whereas both orexin-A and -B nerve fibers projected widely into the olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex,(More)
BACKGROUND In Japan, endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is accepted as a treatment option for cases of early gastric cancer (EGC) where the probability of lymph node metastasis is low. The results of EMR for EGC at the National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, over a 11 year period are presented. METHODS EMR was applied to patients with early cancers up to(More)
The high resolution three-dimensional x-ray structure of the metal sites of bovine heart cytochrome c oxidase is reported. Cytochrome c oxidase is the largest membrane protein yet crystallized and analyzed at atomic resolution. Electron density distribution of the oxidized bovine cytochrome c oxidase at 2.8 A resolution indicates a dinuclear copper center(More)
Two endogenous ligands for cannabinoid receptors, anandamide (arachidonylethanolamide) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, lose their biological activities by enzymatic hydrolysis. A cDNA for a rat liver enzyme hydrolyzing anandamide as well as oleamide was overexpressed in COS-7 cells. When the particulate fraction was allowed to react with 2-arachidonoylglycerol,(More)
A cDNA clone, Ids3 (iron deficiency-specific clone 3), was isolated from an Fe-deficient-root cDNA library of Hordeum vulgare. Ids3 encodes a protein of 339 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 37.7 kDa, and its amino acid sequence shows a high degree of similarity with those of plant and fungal 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases. One(More)
BACKGROUND Mutations in TERC, the gene for the RNA component of telomerase, cause short telomeres in congenital aplastic anemia and in some cases of apparently acquired hematopoietic failure. We investigated whether mutations in genes for other components of telomerase also occur in aplastic anemia. METHODS We screened blood or marrow cells from 124(More)
Families bearing mutations in the presenilin 1 (PS1) gene develop Alzheimer's disease. Previous studies have shown that the Alzheimer-associated mutations in PS1 increase production of amyloid beta protein (Abeta1-42). We now show that PS1 also regulates phosphorylation of the microtubule-associated protein tau. PS1 directly binds tau and a tau kinase,(More)
Using immunohistochemistry, we examined the localization of four types of proline-directed kinases in the brains of control rats and in the brains of non-demented aged human subjects, subjects with Alzheimer's disease and those with Down's syndrome. The four kinases were: cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) 5, a component of tau protein kinase (TPK) II; TPK(More)
The serine-threonine kinase Akt exerts its anti-apoptotic effects through several downstream targets, including the pro-apoptotic Bc1-2 family member Bad, Forkhead transcription factors, and the cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB). In this report we demonstrate that Akt inhibits a conformational change in the pro-apoptotic Bax protein and its(More)