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The inferior temporal cortex (IT) of the monkey, a final stage in the ventral visual pathway, has been known to process information on two-dimensional (2-D) shape, color, and texture. On the other hand, the dorsal visual pathway leading to the posterior parietal cortex has been known to process information on location in space. Likewise, neurons selective(More)
Area V4 is an intermediate stage of the ventral visual pathway providing major input to the final stages in the inferior temporal cortex (IT). This pathway is involved in the processing of shape, color, and texture. IT neurons are also sensitive to horizontal binocular disparity, suggesting that binocular disparity is processed along the ventral visual(More)
Accumulating evidence indicates a pivotal role for neuroinflammation in ischemic and excitotoxic brain injury. Cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 (CINC-1) is a CXC chemokine implicated in the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the brain parenchyma. In this study, we investigated the effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced neuronal(More)
Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is two-dimensional mass spectrometry to visualize the spatial distribution of biomolecules, which does not need either separation or purification of target molecules, and enables us to monitor not only the identification of unknown molecules but also the localization of numerous molecules simultaneously. Among the ionization(More)
Neurons in the monkey inferior temporal cortex (IT) have been shown to respond to shapes defined by luminance, texture, or motion. In the present study, we determined whether IT neurons respond to shapes defined solely by binocular disparity, and if so, whether signals of disparity and other visual cues to define shape converge on single IT neurons. We(More)
Human subjects generally perceive the global form of hierarchically organized visual patterns faster than the local form. To test whether macaque monkeys show a similar precedence for global processing, two monkeys were trained to discriminate either the global or local form of hierarchical visual patterns. The response time to discriminate the global form(More)
Neurexins (Nrxs) are presynaptic membrane proteins with a single membrane-spanning domain that mediate asymmetric trans-synaptic cell adhesion by binding to their postsynaptic receptor neuroligins. α-Nrx has a large extracellular region comprised of multiple copies of laminin, neurexin, sex-hormone-binding globulin (LNS) domains and epidermal growth factor(More)
Amyloid-beta (A beta) peptides play a central role in the development of Alzheimer's disease. They are known to induce mitochondrial dysfunction and caspase activation, resulting in apoptosis of neuronal cells. Here we show that human cytoplasmic gelsolin inhibits A beta peptide-induced cell death of neuronally differentiated rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12)(More)
Neurons in the inferior temporal (IT) cortex respond not only to the shape, color or texture of objects, but to the horizontal positional disparity of visual features in the right and left retinal images. IT neurons with similar shape selectivity cluster in columns. In this study, we examined how IT neurons are spatially arranged in the IT according to(More)