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Neurons with surround suppression have been implicated in processing high-order visual features such as contrast- or texture-defined boundaries and subjective contours. However, little is known regarding how these neurons encode high-order visual information in a systematic manner as a population. To address this issue, we have measured detailed spatial(More)
Humans and animals use visual cues such as brightness and color boundaries to identify objects and navigate through environments. However, even when these cues are not available, we can effortlessly perform these tasks by using second-order cues such as contrast variation (envelope) of patterns on surfaces. Previously, numerous psychophysical studies(More)
Accumulating evidence indicates a pivotal role for neuroinflammation in ischemic and excitotoxic brain injury. Cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 (CINC-1) is a CXC chemokine implicated in the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the brain parenchyma. In this study, we investigated the effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced neuronal(More)
A variety of insect species induce galls on host plants. Several studies have implicated phytohormones in insect-induced gall formation. However, it has not been determined whether insects can synthesize phytohormones. It has also never been established that phytohormones function in gall tissues. Liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry(More)
The popularity of imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) of tissue samples, which enables the direct scanning of tissue sections within a short time-period, has been considerably increasing in cancer proteomics. Most pathological specimens stored in medical institutes are formalin-fixed; thus, they had been regarded to be unsuitable for proteomic analyses,(More)
OBJECTIVES Venodynamics and lymphodynamics may interact as an inseparable and mutually dependent dual outflow system. This study investigated the effect of surgical treatment on lower limb lymph flow in patients with varicose veins. METHODS Thirty-nine patients with varicose veins in the lower limb (28 patients with unilateral limb, 11 patients with(More)
We examined the role of phagocyte-derived oxygen radicals in tumor cell acquisition of metastatic phenotype by comparing gp91(phox-/-) mice and C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice. The gp91(phox-/-) mouse is deficient in the gp91(phox) gene, an essential subunit of the phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase that generates superoxide anion.(More)
Autism spectrum disorders are developmental disorders characterised as deficits in social and communication skills, and they affect both verbal and non-verbal communication. Previous works measured differences in children with and without autism spectrum disorders in terms of linguistic and acoustic features, although they do not mention automatic(More)
A liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LC/APCI-MS) method based on time-of-flight MS (TOFMS) with a real-time reference mass correction technique was developed for the simultaneous determination of Fusarium mycotoxins (nivalenol, deoxynivalenol, fusarenon X, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, HT-2(More)
Area V4 is an intermediate stage of the ventral visual pathway providing major input to the final stages in the inferior temporal cortex (IT). This pathway is involved in the processing of shape, color, and texture. IT neurons are also sensitive to horizontal binocular disparity, suggesting that binocular disparity is processed along the ventral visual(More)