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Humans and animals use visual cues such as brightness and color boundaries to identify objects and navigate through environments. However, even when these cues are not available, we can effortlessly perform these tasks by using second-order cues such as contrast variation (envelope) of patterns on surfaces. Previously, numerous psychophysical studies(More)
Neurons with surround suppression have been implicated in processing high-order visual features such as contrast- or texture-defined boundaries and subjective contours. However, little is known regarding how these neurons encode high-order visual information in a systematic manner as a population. To address this issue, we have measured detailed spatial(More)
Accumulating evidence indicates a pivotal role for neuroinflammation in ischemic and excitotoxic brain injury. Cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 (CINC-1) is a CXC chemokine implicated in the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the brain parenchyma. In this study, we investigated the effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced neuronal(More)
Area V4 is an intermediate stage of the ventral visual pathway providing major input to the final stages in the inferior temporal cortex (IT). This pathway is involved in the processing of shape, color, and texture. IT neurons are also sensitive to horizontal binocular disparity, suggesting that binocular disparity is processed along the ventral visual(More)
Polymorphic adhesion molecules neurexin and neuroligin (NL) mediate asymmetric trans-synaptic adhesion, which is crucial for synapse development and function. It is not known whether or how individual synapse function is controlled by the interactions between variants and isoforms of these molecules with differing ectodomain regions. At a physiological(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) has been suggested to be an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), whose primary target is either myelin itself, or myelin-forming cells, the oligodendrocytes. Although axonal damage occurs in MS, it is regarded as a secondary event to the myelin damage. Here, the lesion develops from the myelin(More)
Neurexins (Nrxs) are presynaptic membrane proteins with a single membrane-spanning domain that mediate asymmetric trans-synaptic cell adhesion by binding to their postsynaptic receptor neuroligins. α-Nrx has a large extracellular region comprised of multiple copies of laminin, neurexin, sex-hormone-binding globulin (LNS) domains and epidermal growth factor(More)
Amyloid-beta (A beta) peptides play a central role in the development of Alzheimer's disease. They are known to induce mitochondrial dysfunction and caspase activation, resulting in apoptosis of neuronal cells. Here we show that human cytoplasmic gelsolin inhibits A beta peptide-induced cell death of neuronally differentiated rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12)(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is involved in tumor progression/metastasis and activated in various cancers. Here we show that HIF-1alpha, which plays a major role in HIF-1 activation, is overexpressed in preneoplastic hepatocytic lesions from a very early stage during hepatocarcinogenesis in mice and man. Transcriptional targets of HIF-1, such as(More)
Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is two-dimensional mass spectrometry to visualize the spatial distribution of biomolecules, which does not need either separation or purification of target molecules, and enables us to monitor not only the identification of unknown molecules but also the localization of numerous molecules simultaneously. Among the ionization(More)