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High density 3D LSI technology using W/Cu hybrid through silicon vias (TSVs) has been proposed. Major reliability issues attributed to W/Cu hybrid TSVs in high density 3D LSIs such as (i) thermo-mechanical stress exerted by W TSVs used for signal lines and Cu TSVs used for power/ground lines in active Si, (ii) external gettering (EG) role played by(More)
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