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Diffusion rate and restricted diffusion of cell-associated water in ripening barley seeds were examined by NMR microscopy using the pulse gradient spin-echo and the pulse gradient stimulated-echo methods. Changes in the mobility of cell-associated water and properties of cell membranes during ontogeny seed were assessed. Diffusion coefficients for bulk(More)
Synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) at the SPring-8 40B2 and 45XU beamlines was carried out on aqueous solutions of (PEG-P(Asp(Bzl))): partially benzyl-esterified poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(aspartic acid) with LE540 loaded up to 8.3 wt %, where LE540 is a very hydrophobic retinoid antagonist drug. The scattering profiles showed(More)
The dimensions and intermolecular interactions of surface-grafted and unbound, free polyampholytes, poly[3-(N-2methacryloyloxyethyl-N,N-dimethyl) ammonatopropanesulfonate] (PMAPS) and poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC), were estimated in an aqueous NaCl solution over a wide range of salt concentrations (Cs). The free PMAPS and PMPC(More)
In a previous paper [Phys. Rev. E 83, 021801 (2011)] we performed neutron reflectivity (NR) measurements on a five-layer polystyrene (PS) thin film consisting of alternatively stacked deuterated polystyrene (dPS) and hydrogenated polystyrene (hPS) layers (dPS/hPS/dPS/hPS/dPS, ∼100 nm thick) on a Si substrate to reveal the distribution of Tg along the depth(More)
Using grazing-incidence small-angle scattering (GISAXS) with computed tomography (CT), we have individually reconstructed the spatial distribution of a thin gold (Au) layer buried under a thin poly(styrene-b-2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) layer. Owing to the difference between total reflection angles of Au and PS-b-P2VP, the scattering profiles for Au(More)
Multilayer nanostructure analysis has been carried out for core-shell PbS/EuS nanocrystals by the combination of the synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) method and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). SAXS patterns of a dilute hexane solution of the PbS/EuS nanocrystals were measured at a high signal-to-noise ratio by using synchrotron(More)
Grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) measurements with soft X-rays have been applied to Ge nanodots capped with a Si layer. Spatially anisotropic distribution of nanodots resulted in strongly asymmetric GISAXS patterns in the qy direction in the soft X-ray region, which have not been observed with conventional hard X-rays. However, such(More)
Charge transport in intermixed regions of all-polymer solar cells based on a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT; electron donor) with poly[2,7-(9,9-didodecylfluorene)-alt-5,5-(4',7'-bis(2-thienyl)-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)] (PF12TBT; electron acceptor) was studied by conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM). For a blend film fabricated from a(More)
Layer-by-layer films composed of redox-active ruthenium dimer and Zr(IV) ions were fabricated on an indium tin oxide electrode. The fabricating behavior was monitored by cyclic voltammetry and UV-vis absorption spectral measurements. The orientation of the film was also monitored by grazing-incidence small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS)(More)