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Cell lineages during embryogenesis of the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi were analyzed up until the stage where each blastomere was fated to be only a single tissue type (i.e., the tissue restricted stage) by intracellular injection of horseradish peroxidase using the iontophoretic injection method. Initially, the developmental fates of all blastomeres of the(More)
The brain of the ascidian larva comprises two pigment cells, termed the ocellus melanocyte and the otolith melanocyte. Cell lineage analysis has shown that the two bilateral pigment lineage cells (a-line blastomeres) in the animal hemisphere give rise to these melanocytes in a complementary manner. The results of the present investigation suggest that the(More)
Cell lineages during development of ascidian embryos were analyzed by injecting horseradish peroxidase as a tracer enzyme into identified cells of the 16-cell and 32-cell stage embryos of Halocynthia roretzi. Most of the blastomeres of these embryos developed more kinds of tissues than have hitherto been reported, and therefore, the developmental fates of(More)
We have investigated the role of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway during neural tissue formation in the ascidian embryo. The orthologue of the BMP antagonist, chordin, was isolated from the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi. While both the expression pattern and the phenotype observed by overexpressing chordin or BMPb (the dpp-subclass BMP) do not(More)
Cell lineages during ascidian embryogenesis are invariant. In a previous study, the developmental fate of each blastomere during embryogenesis of the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi was analyzed in detail by intracellular injection of a tracer molecule, horseradish peroxidase (Nishida, H., Dev. Biol. 121, 526-541, 1987). In the present study, the developmental(More)
The tadpole larva of solitary ascidians has 40 notochord cells in its tail. Of these cells, 32 in the anterior and middle part of the tail are derived from the A-line blastomeres, while 8 in the posterior part of the tail originate from the B-line blastomeres. Previous experiments involving continuous dissociation of daughter blastomeres from the first(More)
The tadpole larva of an ascidian develops 40 notochord cells in the center of its tail. Most of the notochord cells originate from the A-line precursors, among which inductive interactions are required for the subsequent differentiation of notochord. The presumptive-endoderm blastomeres or presumptive-notochord blastomeres themselves are inducers of(More)
Genomes of animals as different as sponges and humans show conservation of global architecture. Here we show that multiple genomic features including transposon diversity, developmental gene repertoire, physical gene order, and intron-exon organization are shattered in the tunicate Oikopleura, belonging to the sister group of vertebrates and retaining(More)
In ascidian embryos, three successive unequal cleavages occur at the posterior pole, generating a specific cleavage pattern. A recently reported novel structure designated the centrosome-attracting body (CAB) has been suggested to play essential roles in the unequal cleavages attracting centrosomes and the nucleus towards the posterior pole. To examine the(More)
The major mesodermal tissues of ascidian larvae are muscle, notochord and mesenchyme. They are derived from the marginal zone surrounding the endoderm area in the vegetal hemisphere. Muscle fate is specified by localized ooplasmic determinants, whereas specification of notochord and mesenchyme requires inducing signals from endoderm at the 32-cell stage. In(More)