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Whether there is an absolute critical period for acquiring language is a matter of continuous debate. One approach to address this issue is to compare the processes of second language (L2) learning after childhood and those of first language (L1) learning during childhood. To study the cortical process of postchildhood L2 learning, we compared event-related(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of the present study was to clarify the effect of mastication on cognitive processing using reaction time (RT) and event-related potentials (ERPs). METHODS The two experiments consisted of two conditions, Mastication (chewing gum) and Control (relaxing without chewing gum) in Experiment 1, and Jaw Movement (opening and closing the(More)
OBJECTIVE We investigated the changes in the somatosensory P100 and N140 during passive (reading) versus active tasks (counting, button pressing) and oddball (target=20%, standard=80%) versus deviant alone conditions (standards were omitted). METHODS Nine healthy subjects performed the 3 tasks (reading, counting and button pressing) under two conditions.(More)
The modulation of the somatosensory N140 was examined in a selective attention task where a control condition was applied and the interstimulus interval (ISI) was varied. Electrical stimuli were randomly presented to the left index (p=0.4) and middle fingers (p=0.1), and right index (p=0.4) and middle fingers (p=0.1). In the attend-right condition, subjects(More)
OBJECTIVE The amount of attentional resources allocated to a task is determined by the intrinsic demands, also denoted as task load or difficulty of the task. Effects of resource allocation on the somatosensory N140 and P300 were investigated in an inter-modal situation using a dual-task methodology. METHODS Under a dual-task condition, subjects(More)
Many studies have reported a movement-related modulation of response in the primary and secondary somatosensory cortices (SI and SII) to a task-irrelevant stimulation in primates. In the present study, magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to examine the top-down centrifugal regulation of neural responses in the human SI and SII to a task-relevant(More)
To clarify the effect of mastication on motor preparation processing using electroencephalography (EEG), we investigated the effect of mastication on contingent negative variation (CNV) and reaction time (RT) in Experiment 1, and movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) in Experiment 2. The twelve subjects performed four CNV or MRCP sessions, and in the(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the existence of a pre-attentively evoked somatosensory mismatch negativity component and to investigate the use of that component in objective clinical diagnostics. METHODS First we determined the temporal discrimination threshold (DT) of paired stimuli in each subject, and applied two sequential electrical stimuli to the hand with(More)
Inhibiting inappropriate behavior and thoughts is an essential ability for humans, but the regions responsible for inhibitory processing are a matter of continuous debate. This is the first study of somatosensory go/nogo tasks using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Fifteen subjects preformed two different types of go/nogo task,(More)
Motor imagery is defined as the mental execution of a movement without any muscle activity. In the present study, corticospinal excitability was assessed by motor evoked potentials (MEPs) when the subjects imagined isometric elbow flexion at various force levels. Electromyography was recorded from the right brachioradialis, the biceps brachii and the(More)