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A case is reported of atypical glomus tumor occurring in the posterior inferior mediastinum of a 26-year-old woman complaining of severe back pain. The tumor was composed of atypical small, round tumor cells with scattered mitotic figures. In addition to sheet-like, diffuse proliferation of the tumor cells, some areas of the tumor contained small "glomoid"(More)
We prove a lower bound of 5n − o(n) for the circuit complexity of an explicit (constructible in deterministic polynomial time) Boolean function , over the basis U2. That is, we obtain a lower bound of 5n − o(n) for the number of {and, or} gates needed to compute a certain Boolean function, over the basis {and, or, not} (where the not gates are not counted).(More)
The minimum number of NOT gates in a Boolean circuit computing a Boolean function f is called the inversion complexity of f. In 1958, Markov determined the inversion complexity of every Boolean function and particularly proved that ⌈log 2 (n + 1)⌉ NOT gates are sufficient to compute any Boolean function on n variables. In this paper, we consider circuits(More)
We give improved lower bounds for the size of negation-limited circuits computing Parity and for the size of negation-limited inverters. An inverter is a circuit with inputs x1,. .. , xn and outputs ¬x1,. .. , ¬xn. We show that (1) For n = 2 r − 1, circuits computing Parity with r − 1 NOT gates have size at least 6n − log 2 (n + 1) − O(1) and (2) For n = 2(More)
The fundamental symmetric functions are EX n k (equal to 1 if the sum of n input bits is exactly k), TH n k (the sum is at least k), and MOD n m,r (the sum is congruent to r modulo m). It is well known that all these functions and in fact any symmetric Boolean function have linear circuit size. Simple counting shows that the circuit complexity of computing(More)
In this note, we consider the minimum number of NOT operators in a Boolean formula representing a Boolean function. In circuit complexity theory, the minimum number of NOT gates in a Boolean circuit computing a Boolean function f is called the inversion complexity of f. In 1958, Markov determined the inversion complexity of every Boolean function and(More)
Arpe and Manthey [Algorithmica'09] recently studied the minimum AND-circuit problem, which is a circuit minimization problem, and showed some results including approximation algorithms, APX-hardness and fixed parameter tractability of the problem. In this note, we show that algorithms via the k-set cover problem yield improved approximation ratios for the(More)