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All of these are synthesized as single-chain polypeptides of about 150 kDa which are generally nicked after secretion to yield N-terminal light (« 50 kDa) and C-terminal heavy (= 100 kDa) chains connected by a single disulfide bond. C. botulinum Cl neurotoxin is encoded by a bacteriophage (1, 2). C. botulinum Cl neurotoxin DNA sequence shown below was(More)
To define conserved domains within the light (L) chains of clostridial neurotoxins, we determined the sequence of botulinum neurotoxin type B (BoNT/B) and aligned it with those of tetanus toxin (TeTx) and BoNT/A, BoNT/C1, BoNT/D, and BoNT/E. The L chains of BoNT/B and TeTx share 51.6% identical amino acid residues whereas the degree of identity to other(More)
Injection of exogenous mRNA purified from various tissue preparations into cellular translation systems such as Xenopus oocytes has allowed expression of complex proteins (e.g., receptors for neurotransmitters). No evidence for expression of injected exogenous mRNA, however, has been reported in terminally differentiated neurons. If achieved, it would allow(More)
mRNAs encoding the light chain of tetanus and botulinum neurotoxins were transcribed, in vitro, from the cloned and specifically truncated genes of Clostridium tetani and Clostridium botulinum, respectively, and injected into presynaptic identified cholinergic neurons of the buccal ganglia of Aplysia californica. The size of the current response measured in(More)
In an in vitro study, Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LT) was shown to directly affect activated CD4(+) T cells and support interleukin (IL)-5 production in IL-4-deficient (IL-4(-/-)) mice, whereas cholera toxin (CT) did not. Both LT and CT enhanced B7-2 expression on B cells and macrophages. These effects were not influenced by CD40-CD40 ligand(More)
—We have been conducting an ecological observation of seabirds. The system used in the previous study utilized the wired network, and has been difficult to construct a scalable sensor network. Furthermore, that system couldn't distinguish types of the seabirds (e.g., male/female parent, chick), which is useful information for biologist to verify their(More)
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