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The nephrotoxicity of the nucleotide antivirals adefovir, cidofovir and tenofovir is considered to depend on the renal tubular transport of them. Although it is known that the antivirals are substrates of the human renal organic anion transporter hOAT1 (SLC22A6), there is no information available on other organic ion transporters. The aim of the present(More)
Observation of nanoscale structure dynamics on cell surfaces is essential to understanding cell functions. Hopping-mode scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) was used to visualize the topography of fragile convoluted nanoscale structures on cell surfaces under noninvasive conditions. However, conventional hopping mode SICM does not have sufficient(More)
NMR micro-images of the kidney and liver were measured at 9.4 T in intact mouse, schistosoma Mansoni-infected mouse, and lupus nephritis in an MRL/lpr mouse. High-field NMR imaging has the advantages of sensitivity, spatial resolution, and tissue contrasts based on longitudinal and transverse relaxations, magnetic susceptibility differences and blood flow.
Local cell-membrane permeability and ionic strength are important factors for maintaining the functions of cells. Here, we measured the spatial electrochemical and ion concentration profile near the sample surface with nanoscale resolution using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) combined with scanning ion-conductance microscopy (SICM). The ion(More)
Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) was applied to evaluate an unlabeled secretory protein in living cells. The target protein, von Willebrand factor (vWF), was released from human endothelial cells by adding phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). We confirmed that SICM could be used to clearly visualize the complex network of vWF and to detect(More)
Despite extensive use of arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs)-including octaarginine (R8)-as intracellular delivery vectors, mechanisms for their internalization are still under debate. Lipid packing in live cell membranes was characterized using a polarity-sensitive dye (di-4-ANEPPDHQ), and evaluated in terms of generalized polarization.(More)
Information regarding spatial mRNA localization in single cells is necessary for a better understanding of cellular functions in tissues. Here, we report a method for evaluating localization of mRNA in single cells using double-barrel scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM). Two barrels in a nanopipette were filled with aqueous and organic electrolyte(More)
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