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Helicobacter pylori, a Gram-negative gastric bacterium, secretes VacA, a cytotoxin that causes vacuolar degeneration of susceptible cells. Velocity sedimentation analysis showed that treatment of VacA at alkaline pH led to disassembly of VacA oligomers, an observation reported previously for acid-treated VacA. Exposure of VacA to acid or alkali increased(More)
Antimicrobial peptides are crucial for host defense at mucosal surfaces. Bacterial factors responsible for induction of human beta-defensin-2 (hBD-2) mRNA expression in Caco-2 human carcinoma cells were determined. Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella dublin, and culture supernatants of these strains induced hBD-2(More)
We investigated the effects of vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) prepared from Helicobacter pylori on the metabolism of gastric epithelial cells, AZ-521. VacA caused the ATP levels to decrease in a time-dependent manner; by approximately 20% in 6 h, 35% in 12 h and 50% in 24 h, at a concentration of 120 nM. This decrease was also dependent on the concentration(More)
The mode of action of tachyplesin I, an antimicrobial cationic heptadecapeptide amide isolated from the hemocyte debris of a horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus, toward lipid matrices was studied with synthetic tachyplesin I, its analogs with Phe in place of Trp or Tyr, a linear analog with no disulfide bonds, and two linear short fragments. Circular(More)
It has been reported that a peptide corresponding to the S4 segment in sodium channel protein is able to form voltage-dependent cation-selective ion channels (Tosteson, M. T., Auld, D. S., and Tosteson, D. C. (1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 86, 707-710). However, biological and other physical properties remain unexamined. In the present study, three(More)
Polycationic reagents such as cationic lipids and poly-L-lysine are widely used for gene transfer into cells in vitro and show promise as vectors for in vivo gene therapy applications as nonviral gene transfer techniques. We have developed a novel transfection method using cationic amphiphilic alpha-helical oligopeptides with repeated sequences.(More)
Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) is believed to be one of the factors that induces gastric disease. Our previous study indicated that VacA causes a decrease in the intracellular ATP level in human gastric epithelial cells, suggesting to impair mitochondrial membrane potential followed by a decrease in energy metabolism (Kimura et al.,(More)
A 25-mer cationic peptide pleurocidin, isolated from the winter flounder, has broad antibacterial activity. To clarify the structure-activity relationship, its properties and biological activity were examined. CD measurements showed that pleurocidin took an alpha-helical structure in the presence of DOPC/DOPG (3:1, anionic) vesicles. Very weak hemolytic(More)
To investigatie a potential mechanism of how Helicobacter pylori establishes infection, we purified a lot of vacuolating toxin (VacA) from supernatant of H. pylori ATCC49503 (tox+ strain 60190). We used an antibody which was prepared by immunizing rabbits with a synthetic peptide consisting of 16 amino acids reflecting a portion (Glu69-Arg83) of amino acid(More)
Several cationic model peptides of the prepiece moieties of mitochondrial protein precursors were found to be active against Gram-positive bacteria, but inactive against Gram-negative bacteria. The CD spectra of the model peptides in the presence of phospholipid liposomes demonstrated that antimicrobial activity was generally in parallel with the content of(More)