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Aquatic crustaceans and some bivalve mollusks contain a large amount of free D-alanine (up to 100 mumol/g wet wt.) in their tissues. Under high salinity stress, crustaceans and bivalve mollusks largely accumulate D- and L-alanine irrespective of species examined, together with L-glutamine, L-proline, and glycine of which increases are species dependent.(More)
Under hyper-salinity stress from freshwater to 17 and 25 ppt seawater, red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii largely accumulated D- and L-alanine together with glycine, L-glutamine, and L-proline in both muscle and hepatopancreas. The increases of D- and L-alanine in muscle were the highest in all amino acids and reached 6.8- and 5.4-fold, respectively,(More)
This study investigated the effect of antioxidants, i.e., carnosine and its Trolox- (water-soluble analog of alpha-tocopherol) acylated derivatives (S,S)-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carbonyl-beta-alanyl-L-histidine (S,S-Trolox-carnosine, STC) and (R,S)-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carbonyl-beta-alanyl-L-histidine (R,S-Trolox-carnosine,(More)
The extracellular matrix of the alga Botryococcus braunii, Race B, consists mainly of botryococcenes, which have potential as a hydrocarbon fuel. Botryococcenes are structurally similar to squalene raising the possibility of a common enzyme for the biosynthesis of both. While B. braunii squalene synthase (SS) enzyme activity has been documented,(More)
Carnosine and related compounds were compared in terms of their abilities to decrease the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in suspensions of isolated neurons activated by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) using both stationary fluorescence measurements and flow cytometry. Carnosine was found to suppress the fluorescent signal induced by ROS production(More)
Alanine racemase [EC 5.1.1.1], which catalyzes the interconversion between D- and L-alanine, was purified to homogeneity from the muscle of black tiger prawn Penaeus monodon. The isolated enzyme had a molecular mass of 44 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and 90 kDa on gel filtration, indicating a dimeric nature of the(More)
Fresh water crayfish Procambarus clarkii is known to accumulate D-alanine remarkably in muscle after seawater acclimation, accompanied by an increase in alanine racemase activity. We have purified alanine racemase from crayfish muscle to homogeneity. The enzyme is a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 58 kDa. It is highly specific to alanine and does(More)
In response to hypoxia at PO(2) 1.3-1.7 mg/L for 6 h, the kuruma prawn Marsupenaeus (Penaeus) japonicus showed a dramatic decrease in phosphoarginine storage in muscle, with normal levels restored during 4-h post-hypoxic recovery. Large stores of muscle glycogen only decreased between 4 and 6 h during hypoxia, but greatly diminished during recovery. Muscle(More)
A full-length cDNA encoding D-amino acid oxidase (DAO, EC 1.4.3.3) was cloned and sequenced from the hepatopancreas of carp fed a diet supplemented with D-alanine. This clone contained an open reading frame encoding 347 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited about 60 and 19-29% identity to mammalian and microbial DAOs, respectively.(More)