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The present research investigates the effects of gaze direction on the perceived duration of the presentation of angry and happy expressions. When the facial expression was angry, a straight gaze elongated the perceived duration of the expression compared with an averted gaze. However, there was no effect of gaze direction when the facial expression was(More)
Crying by an infant signals an urgent desire for care and protection. Because of the special relationship between a mother and her infant and the signal value of her crying, it is plausible to suggest that the maternal brain efficiently processes crying by infants. In the present study, we examined this hypothesis by measuring event-related potentials in(More)
We examined the effects of the odors from mother's milk, other mother's milk and formula milk on pain responses in newborns undergoing routine heelsticks. Forty-eight healthy infants were assigned to four groups, an own mother's breast milk odor group (Own MM), another mother's breast milk odor group (Other MM), a formula milk odor group (Formula M) and a(More)
A considerable body of research has focused on neural responses evoked by emotional facial expressions, but little is known about mother-specific brain responses to infant facial emotions. We used near-infrared spectroscopy to investigate prefrontal activity during discriminating facial expressions of happy, angry, sad, fearful, surprised and neutral of(More)
An attachment bond between a mother and her child is one of the most intimate human relationships. It is important for a mother to be sensitive to her child's gaze direction because exchanging gaze information plays a vital role in their relationship. Furthermore, recent studies have revealed differential neural activation patterns in mothers when presented(More)
Eye direction perception is highly important for social cognition. However, the neural mechanism underlying gaze direction perception has not been well elucidated. The present study aimed to examine the specific neural mechanism of gaze direction perception by investigating how the event related potential components, which presumably reflect the early(More)
The human visual system is efficient at detecting an approaching object. In detecting approaching human beings, bodily movement serves as a cue for the visual system to compute moving direction. On the basis of this knowledge, we hypothesized that bodily movement implying approach is detected faster than receding bodily movement even when only bodily(More)
The ability to detect facial information despite poor visual conditions is important for young infants. The present study investigated the developmental course of facial information detection by examining whether infants perceive Mooney faces, a well-studied type of impoverished face image. The 18-month-olds preferred upright Mooney faces to inverted ones,(More)
The present study investigated the neural mechanism underlying the stare-in-the-crowd effect by measuring event-related-potentials. The results showed that neural activity was modulated by the type of the target face, either a face with a straight gaze or one with an averted gaze, at several dissociable stages of neural processing. Specifically, the target(More)