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BACKGROUND Panic disorder is a common and debilitating psychiatric disease; yet, the neurobiology of this disorder is not fully understood. Deficits in the prefrontal inhibitory control over hyperactivity of the anxiety-related neural circuit are implicated in the pathophysiological core of panic disorder. The aims of this study were to investigate whether(More)
The present study investigated whether transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the parietal cortex improves the performance of healthy persons in a spatial working memory (WM) task. The effect of TMS on the frontal cortex was examined by measuring oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) with near-infrared spectroscopy. Fifty-two healthy persons received either(More)
It is important to appropriately evaluate the driving performance of elderly persons. In the present study, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was employed to investigate differences of brain function between individuals with Alzheimer's disease (n=12) and healthy elderly controls (n=14) while they were being tested using a driving simulator. Changes of the(More)
We previously proposed the hypothesis of endogenous anticholinergic activity (AA) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). According to this hypothesis, the downregulation of acetylcholine seen in AD is associated with upregulation/hyperactivity of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). The hyperactivation of NMDAR then induces inflammation, which, in turn, causes AA(More)
We review the utility of serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) as a peripheral marker of anticholinergic activity (AA) in the central nervous system (CAA). We hypothesize that the compensatory mechanisms of the cholinergic system do not contribute to SAA if their system is intact and that if central cholinergic system deteriorates alone in conditions such as(More)
We previously speculated that anticholinergic activity (AA) endogenously appeared in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and accelerated AD pathology. In this article we introduce manuscripts supporting the endogenous appearance of AA in AD and the acceleration of AD pathology. We speculate that acethylcholine (ACh) not only is related to cognitive functions but also(More)
We report the case of a 74-year-old woman who presented with amnesia and positive serum anticholinergic activity (SAA), which disappeared after treatment with the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil for 1 year. Her only other regular medications were topical glaucoma preparations. We suggest that mental stress, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's(More)
BACKGROUND Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis of tumor cells but not normal cells; its role in normal non-transformed tissues is unknown. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the role of apoptosis mediated by TRAIL and TRAIL-receptor (TRAIL-R) system in lymphocytic sialadenitis in patients with Sjögren's syndrome. METHODS(More)