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BACKGROUND Panic disorder is a common and debilitating psychiatric disease; yet, the neurobiology of this disorder is not fully understood. Deficits in the prefrontal inhibitory control over hyperactivity of the anxiety-related neural circuit are implicated in the pathophysiological core of panic disorder. The aims of this study were to investigate whether(More)
Accumulating evidence suggests that the neurotrophin receptors, Trks and p75, play distinct roles in regulating cells survival and death, with Trks important for cell survival, and p75 acting to induce cell death. Here, we provide evidence that, in neuronal cultures from rat cerebral cortex, nerve growth factor (NGF) exerts neuroprotective actions via p75.(More)
The present study investigated whether transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the parietal cortex improves the performance of healthy persons in a spatial working memory (WM) task. The effect of TMS on the frontal cortex was examined by measuring oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) with near-infrared spectroscopy. Fifty-two healthy persons received either(More)
It is important to appropriately evaluate the driving performance of elderly persons. In the present study, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was employed to investigate differences of brain function between individuals with Alzheimer's disease (n=12) and healthy elderly controls (n=14) while they were being tested using a driving simulator. Changes of the(More)
We previously proposed the hypothesis of endogenous anticholinergic activity (AA) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). According to this hypothesis, the downregulation of acetylcholine seen in AD is associated with upregulation/hyperactivity of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). The hyperactivation of NMDAR then induces inflammation, which, in turn, causes AA(More)
We review the utility of serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) as a peripheral marker of anticholinergic activity (AA) in the central nervous system (CAA). We hypothesize that the compensatory mechanisms of the cholinergic system do not contribute to SAA if their system is intact and that if central cholinergic system deteriorates alone in conditions such as(More)
We previously speculated that anticholinergic activity (AA) endogenously appeared in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and accelerated AD pathology. In this article we introduce manuscripts supporting the endogenous appearance of AA in AD and the acceleration of AD pathology. We speculate that acethylcholine (ACh) not only is related to cognitive functions but also(More)
In this article, we review and repropose our hypothesis of the endogenous appearance of anticholinergic activity (AA) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). First, we introduce our previous articles and speculate that, because acetylcholine (ACh) regulates both cognitive function and inflammation, downregulation of this neurotransmitter causes upregulation of the(More)
Peritoneal macrophages from Sarcoma-180-bearing mice against Staphylococcus aureus were studied to determine the in vitro phagocytic capacities. When the phagocytic system was opsonized with normal mouse serum, macrophage phagocytic activity increased markedly soon after tumour graft and then returned to normal. A new antiphagocytic factor was detected in(More)