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It has been shown that excess stress to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) triggers apoptosis, but the mechanisms underlying these processes remain unclear. We and others have reported previously that DR5 expression is up-regulated in thapsigargin (THG)-treated human cancer cells. Here, we provide evidence that CHOP is involved in THG up-regulation of DR5,(More)
BCL-2 homology 3 (BH3)-only proteins of the BCL-2 family such as tBID and BIM(EL) assist BAX-type proteins to breach the permeability barrier of the outer mitochondrial membrane, thereby allowing cytoplasmic release of cytochrome c and other active inducers of cell death normally confined to the mitochondrial inter-membrane space. However, the exact(More)
PURPOSE We determined the effects of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on hsp90 and its client proteins Her-2, AKT, and c-Raf, as well as evaluated the cytotoxic effects of co-treatment of SAHA with trastuzumab or docetaxel in human breast cancer BT-474 and SKBR-3 cells containing amplification of Her-2. EXPERIMENTAL(More)
The Bcl-2 homology (BH) 3-only pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein Bim plays an essential role in the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis through activation of the BH1-3 multidomain protein Bax or Bak. To further understand how the BH3-only protein activates Bax, we provide evidence here that BimEL induces Bax conformational change and apoptosis through a(More)
Extracellular interaction between programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) and programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) leads to tumour-associated immune escape. Here we show that the immunosuppression activity of PD-L1 is stringently modulated by ubiquitination and N-glycosylation. We show that glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) interacts with PD-L1 and induces(More)
The RAS-ERK pathway is known to play a pivotal role in differentiation, proliferation and tumour progression. Here, we show that Erk downregulates Forkhead box O 3a (FOXO3a) by directly interacting with and phosphorylating FOXO3a at Ser 294, Ser 344 and Ser 425, which consequently promotes cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. The ERK-phosphorylated FOXO3a(More)
Histone deacetylase inhibitors induce hyperacetylation of the amino-terminal lysine residues of the core nucleosomal histones, which results in chromatin remodeling and altered gene expression. Present studies demonstrate that exposure to a novel hydroxamic acid analogue histone deacetylase inhibitor, LAQ824, induced p21WAF1 and p27KIP1 and caused growth(More)
Proinflammatory cytokines produced in the tumor microenvironment facilitate tumor development and metastatic progression. In particular, TNF-α promotes cancer invasion and angiogenesis associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT); however, the mechanisms underlying its induction of EMT in cancer cells remain unclear. Here we show that EMT and(More)
Bif-1, a member of the endophilin B protein family, interacts with Bax and promotes interleukin-3 withdrawal-induced Bax conformational change and apoptosis when overexpressed in FL5.12 cells. Here, we provide evidence that Bif-1 plays a regulatory role in apoptotic activation of not only Bax but also Bak and appears to be involved in suppression of(More)
Thapsigargin (THG) is an inhibitor of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase that induces caspase 3 activation and apoptosis in HCT116 cells through a Bax-dependent pathway. In Bax-deficient HCT116 cells, however, THG specifically generates two additional species of caspase 3, termed p40 and p64, with molecular masses of approximately 40 and 64 kDa,(More)