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The effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptides (PACAPs: PACAP27, PACAP38) on glutamate-induced neurotoxicity were examined using cultured retinal neurons obtained from 3- to 5-day old Wistar rats. Cell viability was evaluated by double staining with fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide. Effects of PACAPs on the increase in(More)
We have shown previously that intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of naloxone (a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist) or naloxonazine (a selective μ1-opioid receptor antagonist) at the maintenance phase of hibernation arouses Syrian hamsters from hibernation. This study was designed to clarify the role of β-endorphin (an endogenous μ-opioid(More)
The effects of prostaglandin (PG) E2 on glutamate-induced cytotoxicity were examined using primary cultures of rat cortical neurons. The cell viability was significantly reduced when cultures were briefly exposed to either glutamate or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) then incubated with normal medium for 1 h. Similar cytotoxicity was observed with the brief(More)
The central body temperature (T(b)) regulation system during hibernation was investigated in Syrian hamsters of either sex. Hibernation induced in Syrian hamsters by housing them in a cold room under short day-light/dark cycle was confirmed by marked reductions in the heart rate, T(b) and respiratory rate. The hibernation of hamsters was classified into (i)(More)
Hibernation in mammalians such as hamsters is a physiological state characterized by an extreme reduction of various functions such as body temperature and metabolism. Under such severe conditions, the central nervous system (CNS) activity is maintained at a functionally responsive level. Although hibernation is an interesting behavioral state, the(More)
The protective effects of cholecystokinin (CCK) against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity were examined using cultured neurons obtained from the rat cerebral cortex. Cell viability was significantly reduced when the cultures were briefly exposed to glutamate or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and then incubated with normal medium for 60 min. A 60-min exposure to(More)
The effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on glutamate-induced delayed death were examined using the primary cultures of rat retinal neurons. Effects of VIP on glutamate-induced neurotoxicity were evaluated by double staining with fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide. Glutamate (1 mM) was applied to the culture for 10 min in the presence and(More)
Early work in our laboratory has revealed the important role played by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in the arousal from hibernation in Syrian hamsters. In the present study, we investigated the thermogenic mechanism of TRH in Syrian hamsters. Six to 10 female Syrian hamsters were used in the respective experiments. Intracerebroventricular (icv)(More)
The neuroprotective effects of hibernation-regulating substances (HRS) such as adenosine (ADO), opioids, histamine and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) on low-temperature-induced cell death (LTCD) were examined using primary cultured hamster hippocampal neurons. LTCD was induced when cultures were maintained at <22 degrees C for 7 days. ADO (10-100(More)
Head motion is a significant source of therapy-effect degradation in frameless stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). In this study, a three-dimensional (3-D) optical head motion measurement system and a coordinate transformation algorithm were used to track patient head motion. With this system, head motion in frameless SRS was carefully investigated with a(More)